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CRIM 210 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Youth Criminal Justice Act, Young Offender, Young Offenders Act

by dap

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 210
Professor
Ray Corrado
Study Guide
Midterm

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SFU
CRIM 210
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Unit 2: Summary
Evolving Models of Child Rearing
Throughout history, our view of children and the family has changed
Different rearing practices existed
The Meaning of Childhood by Philippe Aries
Few distinctions made in regard to rights between children and adults
Adults shared all aspects of life with children
Children had no special status accorded to them due to age
Three stages of children
1. The Middle Ages: People were indifferent to childhood and perceived children as adults
2. 16th to 17th centuries which saw the discovery of childhood
3. Modern times in which we acknowledge children
Early Youth Justice
Patria Potestas: Roman principle that a father had absolute power over his children
o Children were property to the father
o Treated like adults
o Children held criminally responsible
o Punishments may have been less severe than that of adults
Children under 7 had no criminal responsibility
Children at age 7 to 13 or 14 had special status, resulting in lower penalties
Children aged 14 and over were adult and treated as such
Parens Patriae: Arose in English common law
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o Power of the state to intervene to act as the surrogate parent of a child or other person in need
of protection
Evolution of Family Structure
Structure of the family is determined by numerous factors
Economic structure of a society has the greatest influence on family structure
Agrarian Societies: Economy is sustenance based
o People consume what they produce and surpluses are used to buy goods, land, and farm animals
o Economy is agricultural
o Children began working on the farm immediately
Patriarchal Societies: Church influence paramount and father or eldest male held property and controlled
the lives of others in the family
During this time, girls married young based on wealth for the family
Education not considered in patriarchal societies
Corporal punishment also common in patriarchal households
Industrial Societies
Industrial Societies: Production based
o People no longer consumed what they produced but rather produced in great numbers for profit
Church influence declined
Skills and training were required for employment in trades
Industrial societies are urban based
Families had few children because city life was expensive
Along with industrialization, 1800s brought capitalism
Young people worked in factories or mining
Children worked just as much as adults
Mining deaths, child slave labour was all common in the early industrial era
Government took on the role of child protector, diminishing the role of the parent
Breakthrough in criminal justice system was acknowledging that children are different from adults and
should be treated as such
The industrial economy became more sophisticated, leading to the need for language and educational
system
Education was mandatory so children learned and wrote independent from parents
Social mobility increased and more available goods increased chances for theft and robbery
Fear of youth crime began with increase of property crimes
Child Saving Movement
8’s hild saig oeet ae ito eistee
Stressed the concept of redemption and prevention of juvenile delinquency
Child savers thought children could be guided and protected by forcing children to conform to social
expectations
Reform schools introduced instead of prisons
Traditional values and work encouraged
John J. Kelso was the pioneer of child-saving movement in Canada
Caada’s first jueile justie sste ae ito eistee fro hi
Youth Justice Models
Models can be conceptualized on a continuum
One end focuses on the needs of the young person to protection of society at the other end
Welfare Model: Fouses o idetifig a outh’s proles ad eeds ad the ost appropriate
dispositions or sentences to address them
Justice Model: Emphasizes the procedural rights of young people and proportionality in sentencing
Crime Control: Places a premium on the protection of the public through incapacitation of young
offenders as well as custodial sentences to enhance the deterrent effect of the law on offenders and
would be offenders
Corporatist Model: Emphasizes an increased use of administrative decision making and broader
discretion for professionals in handling youth crime matters
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