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CRIM220 Midterm.docx

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CRIM 220
William Glackman

CHAPTER 1QUANTITATIVE VS QUALITATIVEQuantitativeQualitative Natural Science model do not treat human as a special Humancentred approach Human behaviour are entity instead see them as another biological organism fundamentally different from natural sciences we can talk to subject to same scientific principleshumans must view them as thinking motivated actors Realism there is only one reality that exists independent Constructionism knowledge and truth are created not of the researcherawaits our discovery discoveredit is all a socially constructed concept Emphasis on causes and effects world madeEmphasis on processes reality is not stable and up of predictors and outcomes all visibleawaiting discovery they are actively constructed organismsblack boxes any invisible deconstructed and reconstructed on an ongoing basis processes that goes on inside eg thinking areconstructions of the world are open to change deemed irrelevant Positivism Information derived from logical and Phenomenologism to understand human behaviour must mathematical treatmentsvalid knowledge truth only in take into account humans actively perceive and make sense of scientific knowledge Avoid introspectiveintuitive the world abstract from experience ascribe meaning to knowledge behaviour and are affected by those meaningsPrefer Quantitative measures for their precisionPrefer Direct qualitative verbal reports quantifying and amenability to mathematical analysis responses eg scale of one to ten interferes withunderstanding of peoples words and perceptionsEmphasis on observable variables that areNo variables ruled out internal perceptual variables external to the individual eg social factsIgnore expressly consideredany metaphysical notions such asconsciousnessDepersonalize Objectivity is achieved through social Greater Validity comes with closeness extended contact distance and a detached analytical stance with participants in their natural environmentBehaviour can be extracted from its context to beBehaviour cannot be extracted from its context studiedRapport development of a bond of mutual trustMaintain neutrality do not hate or love group do between researcher and participant not go native or overidentifyParticipantcentered should consider the meanings thatResearchercentred Researchertheory decide what is people themselves give to what they do instead of us inventing important to study and how results be interpreted these meaningsparticipants minimal role beyond responding to stimuli Inductive approach start with observation and allowing thoughtsmotive not of interest grounded theory to emerge Deductive approach start with theory make predictionsUnderstandingverstehenunderstanding behaviour in and assess their success in an ongoing process of theory refinement context in terms meaningful to the actor Understandingability to predictif truly understand a Case study analysis prefer research in the field where behaviour is examined in contextpaying more attention to phenomenon hurricanes depression you should be able to predict its occurrence the trees Larger sampleslooking for general overall pattern Mixed or Multi Method Approaches across many cases paying more attention to the forestBoth are committed to empirical understanding understandingStandardized procedures data all gathered in exactly same should not be from philosophizing and speculation should be way from every subject data all compared and correlated mathematically from data from interacting and observing the worldPreference for aggregation to reduce noise in the data Both value theory and data differ in which comes first compile responses from many persons so that general trendsBoth seek to eliminate rival plausible explanations or patterns across people are visibleacross all responsesBoth are now seen as necessary compliments to each other in any variability will cancel one another out in any group as a whole making the average the purest statement of what is order to increase understanding normal o Quantitative give general description while qualitative only give partial understanding together they provide a broader more comprehensive understanding
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