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CRIM 241 Study Guide - Final Guide: Parole Board Of Canada, Parole Board, Substance Abuse

15 pages96 viewsFall 2013

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 241
Professor
Danielle Murdoch
Study Guide
Final

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CH7 Correctional Institutions
Security Levels
Federal Correctional Institutions all operated by CSC
1. Minimum security institutions = no perimeter fencing + allow unrestricted inmate movement, except at night
2. Medium = surrounded by high security perimeter fencing + some restriction on inmate movement
3. Maximum = highly controlled environments + high security perimeter fencing + strictly control and monitor inmates‟
movements through video surveillance
4. Special Handling Unit (SHU) - for inmates who present such a high level of risk both to staff and other inmates, that they
cannot be housed even in maximum security facilities
5. Multilevel institutions contain one or more security levels in the same facility or on the same grounds
Provincial various levels, no uniform designation
o More use of maximum than federal = mainly because they are responsible for housing person who are on remand
awaiting trial/sentencing broad range of security risks, absence of time to access, all are determined maximum
Security Type
Static fixed security approaches = perimeter fencing, video surveillance, alarms, fixed security post with Co
Dynamic a variety of ongoing, meaningful interactions between Cos and inmates (beyond observation) = eg providing
information, speaking and working with inmates, being proactive
Total Institution (by Erving Goffman)
Prison is a highly structured environment in which all aspect of life, of the inmates, are controlled 24 hours a day by a staff, in
the same place
A large number of like-situated individuals, cut off from the wider society for a period of time, together lead an enclosed,
formally administered round of life”
Activities are tightly scheduled and controlled by an administrative hierarchy
Continuum of correctional institutions
Prison vary interms of their: security classification, affiliation (fed/prof), size, management style, inmate characteristics, etc that
affect the dynamics the of institutional life
The variability of prison environments are located at either end of the security spectrum minimum to maximum
Management Model
Federal
o Assistant Warden Operations oversee scheduling/deployment, desk/sector (supervision COs)
o Assistant Warden Interventions oversee assessment, intervention programs, chaplains, psychologists, aboriginal
liaison management
Unit Management Model = supervisory arrangement model in provincial/territorial institutions
o Each unit has a manager, report to a deputy warden
o Manager supervise unit COs, classification officers, and support staff
o Responsibilities also include security, case management, programming, health and safety
o One group of COs work directly with inmates, other provide static security
Health Issues and Infection Disease
High Risk Behaviour // HIV / AIDS and other Infection Diseases
10x higher than general population, even higher for Aboriginal
Only include those known to authorities, many don‟t disclosed condition, some are not aware, some refuse to be tested
Putting inmates/CO at risk in the institution, as well as communities/families when released
Transmit disease through sexual intercourse, sharing needles, piercing and tattooing with pens/pencils/wire
Prevention Strategies
Efforts to prevent and reduce high risk behaviour among inmates + reduce the levels of infection of HIV/AIDs and
other infectious diseases
Eg provide them with condoms, lubricants, dental dams, bleach kits for needles (not needles)
Train inmates s peer health counsellors to educate other on how to reduce risk of infection
Expand methadone maintenance programs for heroine addicts
Interdiction Strategies
Efforts to reduce the use of illegal drugs and other high risk behaviour in order to prevent HIV/AIDs and other
infectious diseases
Eg frequent searches, urinalysis program, drug sniffing dogs, video surveillance, ion scanners that detect drug residue on
clothing of visitors/returning inmates from community
Effectiveness uncertain
Concern may lead to hard drug use in institutions because marijuana remain in system for many days, whereas heroin stay
for only 48 hours make chance of getting caught lower if use harder drugs
Thus mandatory drug testing may reduce levels of marijuana use, no evidence it reduce use of heroin
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Challenges
Meeting the Requirement and Legislation and Policy
o Changes in law and policies, subjected to periodic external audits to ensure they follow proper procedures
Increasing Accountability
o Increasing court involvement- impose duty to act fairly, ensure decision making is fair and equitable
o Increase crime victims filing civil suits against correctional authorities
o Million of dollars paid by correctional systems to settle lawsuits filed by inmates
o Law suit from parents of inmates who have been severely injured/killed (eg Jeremy Philips killed by serial killer
who he double bunked with, coroner‟s juries recommended that serial killers be housed in separate single cells
**however recommendations are not binding on correctional services)
Managing Staff
o Need good morale and a shared sense of purpose among staff
o Fail leadership can result in poor working environment, lead to incidents and disruptions
Conditions in Correctional Institutions
o Physical conditions have a significant impact on relations among inmates/staff
o Kingston penitentiary will be closed in 2014
Growth in Remand Populations
o Number of person + length of time on remand = increasing
o ¼ of those on remand are for offences against the administration of justice (eg breach of probation conditions, failure
to appear in court)
o Housed in provincial institutions very resource straining and overcrowded (BC at 200% overcapacity)
o All on remand are held in maximum security facilities (regardless of offence/criminal record, have minimal access to
programs/services)
o Include all who are charged with violent crimes, mentally ill, addiction problems
Changing Offender Profile
o More and more go maximum security, more serving for violent offence
o Most at provincial are convicted for nonviolent, but have high rates of alcohol/drug abuse, unstable work histories
o Over 90% been assessed as requiring treatment for substance abuse, or in personal/emotional domain
Elderly Inmates
o 20% in custody, 30% in community are over 50 years old
o Convicted of more serious violent/sexual offences but very long ago, so lower risk
o Chronic illnesses, disabilities, hearing and vision loss, Alzheimer‟s disease
o Older inmate serving first term may have difficulty adjusting, susceptible to victimization by younger inmates
o Many correctional facilities were not designed to address needs of elderly offenders
Mentally Ill
o 35% of federal inmates have mental impairment that require treatment (schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar
disorder)
o Difficult to find treatment for them especially in provincial
o Difficulty following institutional rules and be higly susceptible to victimization by other inmates
o Usually have longer detention periods, more likely to get discipline than treatment, impact on opportunities for release
and ultimate success in community
Offenders with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
o FASD = condition of mental impairment due to the birth mother drinking alcohol while pregnant
o Irreversible brain damage to fetus
o Symptoms include: impulsive violence, inability to control aggressive/harmful behaviour
o Tend not to learn from mistakes don‟t connect „cause and effect‟
o Egocentric, minimize impact of self, action, blame victims
o At heightened risk of alcohol/substance abuse, repeated inappropriate sexual behavior, involvement in CJS
o Gain minimal benefit from treatment program designed to alter their attitudes/behaviour
o Subject to victimization and manipulation by other inmates
Overcrowding
o Been a problem since Kingston was built in 1835 = today many are beyond 100% capacity
o Why? increase number of long-term inmates, growing reluctance of parole boards to release offenders into
community, absence of new facilities, changes in judicial sentencing patterns
o Overcrowding in provincial increase number of remand
o Can lead to heightening tensions among inmates & w/ COs, compromise security and treatment programs
o Double bunking violates UN‟s minimal standards for prisoners place them at risk, murder by cellmates
o Recent federal legislation may worsen situation (mandatory minimum sentences)
Inmate Gangs
o 1/ 6 inmates are affiliated with a gang/organized crime
o Incr in Aborig. gangs –more susceptible to gang‟s recruiting efforts (poverty, disconnected with school/community)
o Smuggling, drug dealing, extortion intimidation + assault to maintain power, cause riots and disruptions
Ensuring Inmate Safety
o Staff must ensure safety of inmates they are in charge but recent years many high profile incidents
o Protective Custody = a section of the prison that holds inmates who are at risk in the general inmate
population
House inmates who have snitched/testified against other inmates, have drug debts, convicted of sexual
crimes (rape or child molestation)
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CH9 Inmates**
General Profile of Inmate Populations
Tend to be male, young, single, low education, marginally skilled, disproportionately Aborigional and Black, have unstable
lives, raised in dysfunctional families, minimal problem solving skills, homeless, lengthy criminal history, alcohol and drug
addiction, mental impairment, FASD
Female offenders also share similar marginalized background of poverty, alcohol and drug dependency, limited education,
minimal employment skills suffered sexual and physical abuse, responsible for children
Many in provincial = over half with sentence under one month
Gong Inside - Status degradation ceremonies
The processing of offenders into correctional institutions whereby the offender is psychologically and materially stripped of
possessions that identify him or her as a member of the „ free society‟
o Eg issue prison clothing, id number, loss of personal possessions
o Mechanisms by which offender move from free world, to world of prison (with strict rules, regulations, informal
economy, social system)
No “status restoration” ceremonies at end of confinement to convert back into citizens
Living Inside - Pains of Imprisonment
The deprivations experienced by inmates confined in correctional institutions
Including the loss of autonomy, privacy, security and freedom of movement and association
o Loss of liberty most devastating for most offenders
o Must cope with loneliness, boredom, hopelessness (Many do not get visits, no letters, for years)
o Worse for aboriginal, who are often incarcerated far away from home community
Also brought about by correctional policies and practices
o Indeterminate sentences leave them uncertain when they will be released and what conditions
o Inconsistent application of regulations by COs
o Risk assessment that categorize inmates result in a loss of personal integrity
Inmate Social System (Inmate Subculture)
Federal system most likely have high developed system (longer incarceration period) in provincial, too much turnover,
work against development of system
But many in provincial also incarcerated many times, well trained at doing time
Pains of imprisonment ensure inmate social system will remain prominent
Why did it evolve?
Deprivation theory = holds that inmate social system exists to provide inmates with access to illicit goods and services
also as a consequence of inmate‟s attempts to mitigate the pains of imprisonment
Importation theory = holds that attitudes and behaviours that characterize the inmate social system are imported into prison
by offenders who had criminal careers on the outside
Concepts to help us understand the inmate social system
Prisonization = the process by which inmates become socialized into the norms, values and culture of the prison
o Not a uniform process, criminals with extensive carceral experience most likely already have developed antisocial
criminal attitudes/behaviour
Institutionalized = inmates who have become prisonized to such a degree that they are unable to function in the outside, free
community
State-raised offenders = inmates who have spent most of their youth and adult lives confined in correctional institutions
o Experienced limited freedom, no social skills or ability to function outside, scare out face paced modern life
o Prison is a home, provide security, friends, room, food, predictable rouine
Challenge: longer confined more difficult to retain prosocial attitudes, so need to prevent them from being so immersed in
the culture that the efforts of correctional staff to promote positive values and behaviours cannot succeed ; need to
„unprisonize‟ inmates as they move closer to release date
Components of ISS
Inmate Code = a set of behavioural rules that govern interactions among inmates and with institutional staff
o Eg do your own time, don‟t exploit others, don‟t be weak, don‟t rat
Social (Argot) roles = roles that inmates assume based on their friendship networks, sentence length, and other factors
related to their criminal history and activities in the institutions
o Eg square johns = prosocial behaviour, positive attitude toward staff and administration
o Right guys = antisocial, negative attitude toward authority
o Snitches = play a risky game of providing staff with information about other inmates and their activities
* these types of roles exist in inmate population is strong evidence that inmate code is not the defining feature of
inmate behaviour. In fact, inmate relationships are characterized by considerable fear, intimidation, violence and
manipulation; how much this is so depends on the „vibe‟ of the particular institutions and the types of offenders in it
Specialized Vocabulary: “bit = inmates sentence (a five year bit) //Beef = crime committed // Fish= new inmate // Goof =
inmate who behaves inappropriately (eg violate inmate-posed prohibition such as whistling)
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