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CRIM 310 FINAL.docx

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 310
Ray Corrado

CRIM 310 FINAL Why has the developmental theoretical perspective become the dominant one in explaining serious and violent offender? For the most part, the field of criminology has been vastly dominated by delinquency theories. Recently, a developmental perspective has gained influence in contemporary criminology. The shift generated a debate between those who argue that delinquency is caused by a single construct or variable (i.e. low self-control) and those who argue that delinquency is caused by distinct risk factors associated with each developmental stage of an individual. In the 1960s there was a significant increase in youth violent crime. Subsequently, many cohort studies focused exclusively on SVOs. They noticed youth crime varies by generation and they wanted answers to why. Traditionally theories in criminology, such as positivist theories which emphasized bonding, poverty, family: size, conflict, prior criminality, family monitoring practices. But many families are large, are in poverty and do not have SVO, so there must be another factor. Much attention has focused on identifying risk factors to aid in prevention of violence in adolescents and young adults, and a number of studies have identified factors contributing to risk for future violence. By the 1990s it became clear that risk factors increase the likelihood of SVOs, while the absence of it reduced it. The odds for violence at age 18 increased with the number of risk factors to which youth was exposed at each developmental stage. Developmental theories suggest that the focus needs to be where the risk factors begin. Genetics & Epigenetics. Genetics: Genetics are important because u inherit traits that predispose you to SVO, extremely low reactive and extremely high reactive people are linked to SVOs. There is also genetic components to disorders such as psychosis, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder. Epigentics:How the environment affects the expression of inherited genes, related to what you experience what you eat what the environmental pollutants are that can activate or diactivate genes. Developmental perspective is that it is able to identify all the potential risk factors an individual can be faced with in each stage of life. The stages can be divided into 10: 1. In uteral/perinatal 2. Birth (& bonding) 3. Infancy 0-1 4. Toddler 1-4 5. Early Childhood 5-7 6. Middle childhood 8-9 7. Late childhood 8. Early adolescence 12-14 9. Middle adolescence 15-16 10. Late adolescence 17-18 1. In uteral/perinatal Fetal development or risk factors: Alcohol : binge drinking is related to FASD in the fetus, it affects the genetic instruction of the development of the brain and physiology of the brain, size of the brain and its connections in the frontal lobe which is responsible for thought processes, affects impulse control; this explains aboriginal groups, binging is correlated with income and education. FASD is characterized by impulsivity, inability to reason through a negative and hostile situation. Lack of patience, high expressions of aggression; parents who suffer or have psychosis Smoking : brain structure and nervous system, leads to impulsivities and low self control. smoking is correlated with income and education Mercury lead poisoning, environmental toxins affects fetal development Nutrition lack of it can cause birth defects, improper development of NVS Excessive stress lower income, lower social capital correlates with it, can lead to drinking, depression, epidephrin, cortisol affects the babys cellular development, inflammation within the mother and babys body, stress is more prevalent in single parenthood 2. Birth Sea section can cause distress to the baby: high BP, low heart rate, oxygen deprivation these can lead to major damages, if heart not pumping blood the brain will be oxygen starved and damaged. Mothers who dont bond with babies or reject them: attachment theories. Babies adopted within the first year have higher likelihood of SVOs. Post partum syndrome in mothers can affect bonding and have detrimental affects on the neuro chemistry of the child, cultures involving other family members reduce likelihood of SVO cause reduces level of stress. Birth trauma can cause schizophrenia 3. INFANCY Bonding: skin to skin contact with the baby prodocues relaxing hormones to lessen the stress, breastmilk transfers immunity: healthier the babys brain, lower likelihood of SVO Bundled, wrapped and held close keeping the baby physically warm important for body and brain; the more secure the baby is physically the healthier development of the brain. ATTACHMENTS Secure: comfortable to explore environment, deal with strangers, insecure: uncomfortable. Hostile: resentful, aggressive The plasticity and migration of stem cells to grow a healthy brain is depended on the baby not panicking and screaming, if they are in a highly agitated stage (the mother will be agitated), hormonally they GBH etc will be blasting and upset the healthy developmental process Uneducated, under 18 mothers with low social capital. Neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse leads to detrimental affects 4. Toddler stage 1-4 (2+3)Learn to speak, walk: autism, FASD indicate developmental dysfunction TRT should depend on whether they are high reactive or low reactive, high reactive shouldbe placed in not extreme situations. Freud focused overwhelmingly on toilet training; ocused a lot on explanation of human violence on sexual themes Sexuality development, age inappropriate sexual behaviors, how a mother or father treats their child sexually can be critical, examples of toddlers act sexually question becomes did they learn it? Were they handled in a wrong way? Pedophilia issues. Series of violent offenders will offend sexually, if you are violent in one context you would be violent in another. You cannot control any of your impulsive Infants and toddlers 2+3 are almost programmed to be aggressive and sometimes violent, alternatives to how to get what they want must be taught properly at this stage. Aggression usually drops by age four as they learn vocab and alternatives Between the age of 2-3, kids may get abused physically and sexually and it is Perrys work. FMRIs of these children shows that damage can be permanent and it alters When traumatized, the part of the brain which is responsible for thinking planning etc is
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