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[CRIM 316] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (84 pages long!)


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 316
Professor
Eric Beauregard
Study Guide
Midterm

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SFU
CRIM 316
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 2 Sept 13 – Theories of Sexual Aggression
Univariate Models of Sexual Aggression
*Looking at one factor explaining sexual assault*
Feminist Theory
Feminist theory view rape as:
oPseudosexual act primarily motivated by male desire for dominance
oDominance has a consequence of excluding women of political decisions that concern them
oWomen = males’ possession for which they get in competition
oSexual gratification is not seen as the main motivation
Evaluation of Feminist Theory: Pros
oAddressing the gendered nature of law and the gendered political response of the State to sexual
AND domestic violence
oAchieved important goals for women such as: consciousness-raising, support for women’s issues,
and the enhancement of women’s self-esteem
oPlace a much-needed demand on researchers to analyze sexual offending within its social context
Evaluation of Feminist Theory: Cons
oLack of empirical scope
o“Patriarchy” and the role of the State in maintaining patriarchal relations that are abuse-supportive
oSex offenders have abuse-supportive beliefs, not because they are sex offenders but because they
are men
oBecause this theory deals mainly with the broader societal causal factors, it is of little help in terms
of therapeutic work with offenders
Physiological Model (Abel & Colleagues, 1981)
Based in part on the finding that many sexual offenders against children exhibit equal or greater genital
arousal to pedophilic stimuli than to consenting adult stimuli
However, deviant sexual arousal may not always be characteristic of men who have sexually offended
against children:
Deviant Sexual Preferences
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Hypothesis: Men who engage in sexually deviant behavior do so because they prefer them to socially
acceptable sexual behaviors
Are thought by many to have become entrenched prior to the initial deviant act
Role of Pornography: Theoretical Models
Conditioning theories:
oPornography can have an effect to the extent that viewers masturbate to orgasm while watching it,
thereby reinforcing their sexual response to the depicted content
oConditioning theories predict 3 things:
1. Effect of pornography will increase with continued exposure if the observer masturbates to
orgasm or is otherwise reinforced while watching it
2. The content of the pornography will shift overtime
3. Sex offenders use more unconventional pornography than non-offenders
Social learning theory:
oSuggests that violent pornography can increase subsequent aggressive behavior because it
portrays this behavior as rewarding
Role of pornography: interesting results
Results from a meta-analysis show that exposure to pornography, with or without depictions of violence,
increased acceptance of rape myths
Pre-exposure to videotaped depiction of rape increased sexual arousal to rape in a subsequent
experimental session, while pre-exposure to videotaped depictions of consenting sex did not
oShows that when you watch pornography, you are more likely to adapt or show factors that are
linked to sexual offenders
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