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CRIM 320 MIDTERM ch 1-10.pdf

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CRIM 320
Martin Andresen

CRIM 320 CHAPTER 12 IntroductionStatisticsthe collection classification presentation and analysis of numerical data o Help make sense out of the millions of data pointsStatistical analysissummarize many data points with few statisticso Eg sports statistics political polling market analysis weather forecastHypothesisan unprovenunsubstantiated statement about the problem under investigation o Eg is criminal activity positively associated with unemployment o Can come fromA model simplification of the real worldA law usually resulting from past hypothesis test eg law of gravityA theory a combo of laws that are relatedCan test a model law or theory locallyA policy changeMeasurement terminology o Discretea count variable egof houses o Continuousmeasured on an interval eg temperature o Quantitative measurescountmeasure something eg crime rate o Qualitative measuresrepresent something land useLevel of measurementNominal o Qualitative number usually representing categories o No numerical relationship between categorieso Exhaustive everything can be assigned to a category o Mutually exclusive nothing can be in two categoriesOrdinal o Categories has rankingordero No equal distance between each category eg gold silver bronzeInterval o Difference between two values is equal can be determined o No true zero the placement of zero is arbitrary eg Fahrenheit and CelsiusRatio oZero has a natural interpretation eg distance time incomePrecise vs Accurate
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