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Final

CRIM 413 Study Guide - Final Guide: Yom Kippur War, 2004 Madrid Train Bombings, United Nations Partition Plan For Palestine


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 413
Professor
Ray Corrado
Study Guide
Final

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Aaron Isley 1
Criminology 413 Terrorism Final Study
Israel-Palestine Conflict
All about land. Since 1947 Palestine has shrunk and been taken over by Israel
Zionist Movement
o Establish Jewish state in Palestine, the biblical homeland of the Jews
o European Jews immigrated there after World War 1, supported by the League of
Nations and the British government
Per Balfour agreement, Britain has mandate over Palestine
Palestinians
o Arab inhabitants of Palestine
o Not happy with Jews immigrating into Palestine/creation of Jewish state
o Violent conflict between Zionists and Palestinians
1947 UN Partition Plan
o Holocaust during WWII caused even more Jews to immigrate to Palestine
o 1947 UN Partition Plan involved the UN dividing up Palestine into two states
Jews accept, Palestinians reject
1948 War of Independence
o After Palestinian rejection of UN Partition plan, Jews decide to declare an
independent Jewish State in Israel (May 15, 1948)
o Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon all declare war on Jewish state
o Jews defeat all Arab nations and gain land that the UN had designated for the
Palestinians
o Ceasefire ends fighting but no Arab state recognizes Israel’s right to exist
o War leads to 750.000 Palestinian refugees
Suez War - 1956
o Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal
o Israel, Britain, France attack Egypt and capture Suez Canal and Sinai Peninsula
o US and UN oppose the attack
Six Day War 1967
o Israel makes pre-emptive strike on Egypt after Egypt mobilizes army
Jordan and Syria then attack Israel, leading to a decisive victory for Israel
o Outcome is the tripling of Israeli territory, taking:
Golan Heights from Syria
West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan
Sinai Peninsula and Gaza strip from Egypt
o Humiliating outcome led to radicalization of many Palestinians, causing them to join
groups like the Palestinian Liberation Organization
Palestinian Liberation Organization
o Fatah took control of PLO from Arafat in 1969
o Arafat fights decade long guerilla& terrorist war against Israel for the liberation of
Palestine
o Goal: Destruction of Israel and the establishment of a Palestinian State (in all of
Palestine)
o Arafat was a controversial figure Israel and US called him a terrorist but to many
others he was a ‘Freedom Fighter
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2
Munich Olympics 1972
o 11 Israeli athletes and coaches killed by Black September Organization
o Black September Organization
Palestinian terrorist organization
Their actions in Munich galvanized European counter-terrorism forces
Yom Kippur War and Camp David Accords
o Yom Kippur War (1973) Egypt and Syria attack Israel on Yom Kippur, but Israel
defeats both and there is a cease-fire
o Camp David Accords (1979) Egypt and Israel sign Peace Treaty in America
Egypt is the first country to make peace with Israel. Later Jordan in 1994
Israel returns the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt
Thus, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated by Islamist extremists
First Intifada and Oslo Accords
o First Intifada (1987-1991) Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of West
Bank and Gaza strip
o First instances of suicide attacks in Israel
o In 1993, president Clinton arranges Oslo Accords, peace agreement between PLO
and Israel
o PLO renounces violence and accepts Israel’s right to exist
o PLO’s new goal is a two-state solution
o Israel agrees to gradual self- rule of the West Bank and Gaza by the Palestinian
Authority (PA) First steps towards the creation of a Palestinian state Arafat
becomes first President of the PA
Second Intifada (2000-2005)
o Peace agreement fails; larger uprising comes up
o Prime minister Rabin assassinated by Israeli right-wing extremist in 1995
o Israel gets tougher in Gaza strip and West Bank, causing many casualties
Israel’s Security Barrier
o 2005 Israel evacuates Gaza
o Israel builds huge security barrier between Israel and West Bank to prevent terrorist
attacks
Rise of Hamas
o Islamist militant group founded in 1987; they want to liberate Palestine through Jihad
o Terrorism supported by Syria and Iran
o 2006 Hamas wins election in Gaza
o Victory leads to 2007 Palestinian Civil War between Hamas and Fatah. Fatah is
brutally defeated and Hamas takes control of the Gaza Strip
o Since then, Hamas has conducted a almost daily missile campaign against Israel’s
South
Hamas Islamic extremists supported by Syria and Iran, does not recognize Israel state and
control the Gaza strip
Fatah Secular moderates supported by US, EU, most Arab states, wants 2-state solution,
and control some of the West Bank
Hamas vs Israel
o 2008 2009 Operation Cast Lead Israel’s goal: Stop missile fire into Israel and
weapons smuggling into Gaza Israel highly criticized for its actions
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3
o 2012 Operation Pillar of Defense Ahmed Jabari’s assassination (Head of military
wing of Hamas) leads to missile attacks into central Israel by Hamas Israel
responds by air campaign
o 2014 Operation Protective Edge Israel arrests militant leaders of Hamas as
reaction to the kidnapping and killing of three teenage boys by Hamas- Hamas
begins a missile campaign against central Israel seven-week war breaks out
Palestinian Grievances
o Israeli settlements in West Bank
By building settlements, they are taking back land BUT this is against what
was promised to the Palestinians by the UN. Both sides have committed
terrorism
o Palestinian refugees and right to return
When Israel gained power, they expelled Palestinians, effectively making
them refugees
o Control over Jerusalem
All 3 major religions have great vested interest in the city
o Want to be rid of security barrier
Reduced suicide bombings, but makes it much harder for Palestinians to get
in because of checkpoints
o Issues between Hamas and Fatah
Hamas extremists (whom enacted Sharia law in the Gaza Strip), Fatah is
losing control due to them now running the government (forced to make
concessions)
Israeli Grievances
o Want security barrier for protection
Safety of their people
o Ongoing terrorist attacks
o Ongoing missile strikes from Gaza Strip by Hamas
o Israel is concerned about the security of its own borders if a Palestinian state is
established (Concern is that Fatah will not be able to control Hamas)
Fatah has already lost to Hamas before and they are not really fighting them
right now
Geopolitics of Israel-Palestine Newman (2002)
o Two processes have affected changing political power
Changing distribution of power after the collapse of the Soviet Union
Structural impacts of globalization, culture and resource flow challenge
sovereignty norms
o A final territorial agreement would require a degree of separation and political
sovereignty that affords them the status of “equal” (Palestine) and frees them from
threats (Israel)
o It is a big change to transition mentally from war to peace; they must recognize,
legitimize, and communicate with each other
Domestic constituencies remain suspicious of the “other” side
Extremist groups always attempt to derail the peace process
o Resolution of national and ethnic conflict usually involved territorial change
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