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Midterm & Final Review.docx

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Earth Sciences
EASC 104
Jeffrey Zurek

Landslides: things that are slumps or slides and things that need to flow Rock avalanches are one coherent rock, but all the others aren't -matters because, as a mud slide it fails but it also collects stuff as it goes down (water) slide: clean break and it moves together as one unit creep: creeps along and moves slowly -creep indicators: things that are bent and trees are growing sideways PPT slide on climate change (number of natural disasters): increase in weather-related natural disasters you change climate and have more weather anomalies until you find a norm more weather-related things are being recorded throughout history; more people living in areas which records smaller, more often floods megacities (large cities) more sensitive and vulnerable to land slides, wildfires and earthquakes can't really ask who is responsible for hazards Efficiency: individuals that live there are responsible Equity: but society needs to work together to help the poor who are unable to fund (social solidarity: donating and gov't organizations to step in when help is needed) Sustainable Forests: one question -what forest management includes… -managing fires and some fire terms (some on mt and final) -different control methods -norm: hand tools to clear line and make sure you get to soil -heavy machinery (bulldozers) -aircraft (fire retardant in water) -BIG THING TO WORRY ABOUT: WIND pre-conditions: hot and dry weather (prolonged) and fuel & wind -ground crew is useless at head of fire (area that is moving and spreading) Space Weather: questions about solar wind -the sun is doing nuclear fission all the time creating hydrogen atoms which makes helium -lots of energy that sends off radiation in a constant flow changes from time to time in intensity and speed, but is always occurring we are protected due to magnetic field which deflects solar wind Sunspots: dark spots on the sun that are cooler and have strong magnetic field associated with them -important because they seem to be tied to weather -affect amount of energy output from sun -come in CYCLES (11 and 22 years) -peak: lots of sunspot activity -troughs: very few -possible to see sunspots in next year and a half Solar Flares: earth in path= BIG PROBLEM moving charges create magnetic field radiation can degrade components (tiny space station room) creates drag in atmosphere (satellites which come down to earth and crash) magnetic field and currents generated can cause power outages Comets: dirty snowball not really sure where they come from, but they are frozen balls of GAS with some rocky elements and metal parts Meteoroids: rocky leftovers from planet formation (formed from accretion- slamming into each other) asteroids: rocky Hydrologic Cycle: ocean water, evaporation, precipitation world is made of salt water and oceans make up 99% not a lot of streams and lakes *MUST KNOW porosity and permeability groundwater must be in good porosity and have good permeability clay particles have lots of space- porosity -can't get water in clay; no permeability -important if you're trying to drill well for water
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