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COMPLETE FINAL REVIEW Professor Macrae gave us a list of questions we should answer before writing the final. I have completed the entire extensive list, complete with thorough definitions for all terms, concepts, theories and processes. Notes include

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GEOG 102
Merrin Macrae

Geography Final Review Measuring Earthgeographic grid of latitude and longitudeLatitude runs east to west but goes from north to southskewedLongitude runs north to south but goes from east to westbetter proportioned different types of map projections pros consCylindrical preserves angles lines are straight good for navigation normal map Conformed map stretches EW globes poles smaller Greenland is not same size as South Africa Planer meridians longitudinal are straight lines great circles are lines helps find shortest distances from one point to another distorted at edges bigger than they really are different types of map scalesWritten1cm equals 5 kmRepresentative Fraction 125 or 125Graphic Scalethe bigger the denominator the smaller the scale time zonesWhen you move WEST you subtract an hour for every 15When you move EAST you add an hour for every 15a new day sweeps WESTWARD from the International Date Line Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasonsseasonality and the factors driving it Seasonality seasonal variations of suns positions above horizon which effects day length Revolution around sun determines length of year Rotation determines length of day wind tides oceans and currents moves counterclockwiseWEST to EAST Tilt of Earths Axis part of Earth is pointing away sun allows for sunlight to reach everywhere allows for seasons not just summer and winter Axial Parallelism earths axis remains at same position throughout the whole year Sphericity suns raysoblique angles more surface area at equator more intense earthsun relations at different times of year The Earths axis always remains pointing in the same direction as it revolves around the sun As a result the solar angle varies at a given place throughout the year The variation in sun angle is the prime cause of our seasons The orientation of the Earth with respect to the Sun also determines the length of day Together the sun angle and day length determine the total amount of solar radiation incident at the Earth Geography Final Review Radiation and EnergyEMR particularly Solar Vs Terrestrial radiation K and L Electromagnetic radiation short wavelengthshigh frequency long wavelengthslow frequency Solar Radiation short waves K come from sun only can be transmitted absorbed or scattered Terrestrial Radiation long waves L earth only Different components of global radiation balance and howwhere they goQKKLL K None at night highest at noon positiveK None at night highest at noon positive L constant lowestnoon because giving off the most when heated negative noon is MOST negative L constant greatest at night positive Different components of energy balanceQ sensible heating measured by touching temp QHh Q latent heat hidden helps slg released when glsE Q storage negligible gQQQQHEg How insolation varies globally Energyatm is not same as ground because of angles of rays and it is intercepted by objects Varies with latitude poles get min equator gets max equator is constant all the time except for when sub solar point shifts AlbedoAbility of surface to reflect KRatio of KKWhite reflectshigh albedo dark absorbslow albedo Greenhouse EffectLower atmosphere is blanket that traps heat inInvolves long waves only rays from Earth and greenhouse gasesReduces extreme temperature changesAir TemperatureDaily cycle of air temperature and linkages with Q and insolation Minimum in the morning because no rays coming in from sun and lost of long waves to space insolationQ are near min Max in late afternoon due to convection of rays insolationQ are decreasing
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