# COMPLETE FINAL REVIEW Professor Macrae gave us a list of questions we should answer before writing the final. I have completed the entire extensive list, complete with thorough definitions for all terms, concepts, theories and processes. Notes include

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
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Geography Final Review
“Measuring Earth”
geographic grid of latitude and longitude
Latitude runs east to west but goes from north to south skewed
Longitude runs north to south but goes from east to west better proportioned
different types of map projections (pros, cons)
Cylindrical: preserves angles, lines are straight, good for navigation, ‘normal map’
Conformed map, stretches E/W, globes poles smaller, Greenland is not same size
as South Africa
Planer: meridians (longitudinal) are straight lines, great circles are lines, helps find
shortest distances from one point to another
distorted at edges (bigger than they really are)
different types of map scales
Written: “1cm equals 5 km”
Representative Fraction: 1:25 or 1/25
Graphic Scale:
*the bigger the denominator, the smaller the scale
time zones
When you move WEST you subtract an hour for every 15°
When you move EAST you add an hour for every 15°
*a new day sweeps WESTWARD from the International Date Line
“Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons”
seasonality and the factors driving it
Seasonality: seasonal variations of sun’s positions above horizon which effects day
length
Revolution: around sun, determines length of year
Rotation: determines length of day, wind, tides, oceans and currents, moves counter-
clockwise WEST to EAST
Tilt of Earth’s Axis: part of Earth is pointing away sun, allows for sunlight to reach
everywhere, allows for seasons (not just summer and winter)
Axial Parallelism: earth’s axis remains at same position throughout the whole year
Sphericity: sun’s rays @ oblique angles, more surface area, at equator more intense
earth-sun relations at different times of year
The Earth's axis always remains pointing in the same direction as it revolves around the sun. As a
result, the solar angle varies at a given place throughout the year. The variation in sun angle is
the prime cause of our seasons. The orientation of the Earth with respect to the Sun also
determines the length of day. Together, the sun angle and day length determine the total
amount of solar radiation incident at the Earth
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Geography Final Review
EMR, particularly Solar Vs Terrestrial radiation (K and L)
Electromagnetic radiation: short wavelengths high frequency, long wavelengths
low frequency
Solar Radiation: short waves, ↓K, come from sun only, can be transmitted, absorbed or
scattered
Terrestrial Radiation: long waves, L, earth only
Different components of global radiation balance and how/where they go
Q* = (↓K - ↑K ) + (↓L - ↑L )
↓K: None at night, highest at noon, positive
↑K: None at night, highest at noon, positive
↓L: constant, lowest @ noon because giving off the most when heated... negative, noon
is MOST negative
↑L: constant, greatest at night, positive
Different components of energy balance
QH: sensible heating, measured by touching, ↑temp, ↑Qh
QE: latent heat, hidden, helps slg, released when gls
Qg: storage, negligible
Q* = QH + QE + Qg
How insolation varies globally
Energy @ atm is not same as ground because of angles of rays and it is intercepted by
objects
Varies with latitude: poles get min, equator gets max, equator is constant all the time
except for when sub solar point shifts
Albedo
Ability of surface to reflect ↓K
Ratio of ↑K/↓K
White reflects high albedo, dark absorbs low albedo
Greenhouse Effect
Lower atmosphere is blanket that traps heat in
Involves long waves only (rays from Earth) and greenhouse gases
Reduces extreme temperature changes
“Air Temperature”
Daily cycle of air temperature and linkages with Q* and insolation
Minimum in the morning because no rays coming in from sun and lost of long waves to
space (insolation/Q* are near min)
Max in late afternoon due to convection of rays (insolation/Q* are decreasing)
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Geography Final Review
Principal controls on temperature
Latitude: greater latitudes, air temp is lower but has greater season ranges, equator is
constant season
Altitude: greater altitudes, lower air temp, ELR=6.4°C/km, atm thins and can’t absorb or
Cloud Cover: moderates temp, reduce isolation @ surface, lowers the max temp at day
and raises min temp at night, reflects short waves and traps long waves
Land-Water differences: LAND more extreme changes, lower Qe because no
evaporation, opaque surface absorbs nrg, soil has lower heat capacity, no mixing
WATER more moderate, greater Qe, evenly heated, transparent, insolation goes
through and warms water throughout body, higher heat capacity, mixing by
currents
World Patterns of Air Temperature
Latitude: greater latitudes, lower temps
Coastal Interior Contrast: MARITIME close to water, temp more const; CONTINENTAL
more fluctuation
January: northern hemi is pointed away, temp lower
Urban heat islands
Have higher/lower max/min values than rural
Lowe albedo due to asphalt, etc
Buildings stop wind flow can’t remove heat
Pollution releases energy
Water can’t reach soil like desert
“Atmospheric Moisture”
Humidity
Specific/Actual: depends on air-temp, expressed as g/km3 of H2O/air
Air has specific capacity @ certain temp: cool air has low water capacity; warm
air has high water capacity
Relative humidity: expressed as a percentage, AMOUNT/MAX AMOUNT, changes by
change in temp or loss/gain of water vapour
DAR, MAR and relationships with atmospheric stability/instability
DAR: dry adiabatic rate @ which dry air cools by expansion or heats by compression, less
than saturated air parcels only, changes by 10°C/km, no condensation
MAR: moist adiabatic rate @ which saturated air cools/heats, 4-10°C/km, releases heat
when cools because gl is exothermic, condenses when cools
Stable: MAR + DAR is cooler than ELR, DAR + MAR sinks, ELR rises
Unstable: DAR + MAR is warmer, rises, ELR is cooler
*Stability=upward movement
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## Document Summary

Latitude runs east to west but goes from north to south skewed. Longitude runs north to south but goes from east to west better proportioned: geographic grid of latitude and longitude, different types of map projections (pros, cons) Cylindrical: preserves angles, lines are straight, good for navigation, normal map". Conformed map, stretches e/w, globes poles smaller, greenland is not same size as south africa. Planer: meridians (longitudinal) are straight lines, great circles are lines, helps find shortest distances from one point to another distorted at edges (bigger than they really are) Graphic scale: different types of map scales, time zones. *the bigger the denominator, the smaller the scale. When you move west you subtract an hour for every 15 . When you move east you add an hour for every 15 . *a new day sweeps westward from the international date line: seasonality and the factors driving it. Seasonality: seasonal variations of sun"s positions above horizon which effects day length.