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GEOG 102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Internally Displaced Person, Forced Migration, Circular Migration

Course Code
GEOG 102
Faran Ali
Study Guide

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1. What are different types of human migrations? Differentiate between
pull and pull factors that trigger migration.
Human migration is one of the many population related problems.
It is defined as “a permanent or temporary relocation or move of residence”
People can either choose to move (voluntarily) or be forced to move (involuntarily)
People who migrate:
o Emigrant
o Immigrant
o Refugee a person who is residing outside the country of his or her origin due to
fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a
particular social group, or a political opinion.
o Internally Displaced Person (IDP) a person who is forced to leave his or her home
region because of unfavorable conditions (political, social, etc.) but does not cross
any boundaries.
9 types of migration:
o Immigration Moving into a new country. Individuals enter a population; thus,
increases the size of the population
o Emigration Leaving one country to move to another. Individuals leave a
population; thus, decreases the size of the population
o Internal migration moving to a new home within a state, country or continent
o International migration moving to a new home in a different state, country or
o Forced Migration (Population transfer) person is forced to leave their home,
usually due to a single push factor such as war, famine, coercion, or disaster
Forced migration for economic, political or social reasons
Forced migration for environmental reasons
Natural disasters
Degradation of land and resources
Climate change
o Step migration a serious of shorter, less extreme migrations from a person’s place
of origin to final destination moving from a farm, to a village, to a town and
finally to a city.
o Chain migration a series of migration within a family or defined group of people.
It often begins with a family member who moves to a new country and sends
money to his family to bring them to this new location.
o Return migration (Circular migration) the voluntary movements of migrants back
to their place of origin.
o Seasonal migration a process of changing locations for a period of time in
response to labor or climate conditions.
Why do people migrate?

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o Push factors: reasons for emigrating forces, conditions, difficulties (war, famine,
coercion, disasters, etc.)
o Pull factors: reasons for immigration incentives, opportunities, jobs,
2. Discuss the implications of varying age structure of the population of
a country.
The age distribution and growth rate of a country’s population can pose significant
3 types of populations:
o Youthful growing population
Feeding, clothing and education a growing population of young people
entering their productive years
National economies must be able to provide jobs for them economic
growth is urgently needed.
Increase in crime due to unemployment, dissatisfaction with inadequate
o Stable population
o Aging shrinking population
Expensive health care and support services to populations that are
increasingly elderly
Labor forces are shrinking (those people of working age) while having to
support increasing numbers of retired people
Economic slowdown due to decrease in production
3. Discuss the possible impacts of population growth on the economy of
a country.
3 conflicting views on the population growth and its relation to the economy of the
relative country:
o The pessimistic theory - population growth restricts economic growth.
Excessive growth is threat to food supplies and natural resources
Solution: Need for a widespread implementation of family planning
o The optimistic theory population growth promotes economic growth
Population growth permits a greater degree of division of labor
Will result in an increase in the average standard of living
Resourceful people will allow available resources to expand
More people will mean bigger markets, more specialization and more
brains to solve problems
o The neutralist theory population growth is independent of economic growth
4. Discuss major causes of world’s environmental problems:
o Overpopulation is the root cause

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o UN estimates 4/5 of global population has inadequate resources such as food,
housing and safe drinking water
Consumer rate of natural resources
o Excessive consumption by wealthier countries
o Energy and material consumption in Canada is 3-5 times the world average
highest consumption of energy in the world
o Economic growth depends upon excessive consumption rate of natural resources
Pollution and waste
o Natural sources of pollution
Volcanic eruptions
Forest fires usually triggered by lightning
Decomposition of organic matter
o Human sources of pollution
Immediate and concentrated oil spills
Gradual and global carbon emissions
** Pollution is often local in source, but global in impact.
** All the other issues are associated with these 3.
5. What are population related problems:
Lack of access to:
o Adequate sanitation
o Enough fuel for heating and cooking
o Electricity
o Clean drinking water
o Adequate health care
o Enough food for good health
Other problems:
o Environmental impacts
Land use change urbanization, agriculture, deforestation.
o Economic growth requires more dependence on natural resources
o Migration movement from one location to another
6. Discuss world food problems and different causes for them.
Malnutrition (under-nutrition)
o Lack of calories or nutrients
o Inadequate/unbalanced diet
o 3 billion worldwide developing countries
o Too many calories
o Fat, sugar, salt
o Developed countries
Agriculture related problems
o Supply environmental problems
o Pollution use of chemicals, and artificial inputs
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