1. What are different types of human migrations? Differentiate between
pull and pull factors that trigger migration.
Human migration is one of the many population related problems.
It is defined as a permanent or temporary relocation or move of residence
People can either choose to move (voluntarily) or be forced to move (involuntarily)
People who migrate:
o Refugee a person who is residing outside the country of his or her origin due to
fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a
particular social group, or a political opinion.
o Internally Displaced Person (IDP) a person who is forced to leave his or her home
region because of unfavorable conditions (political, social, etc.) but does not cross
9 types of migration:
o Immigration Moving into a new country. Individuals enter a population; thus,
increases the size of the population
o Emigration Leaving one country to move to another. Individuals leave a
population; thus, decreases the size of the population
o Internal migration moving to a new home within a state, country or continent
o International migration moving to a new home in a different state, country or
o Forced Migration (Population transfer) person is forced to leave their home,
usually due to a single push factor such as war, famine, coercion, or disaster
Forced migration for economic, political or social reasons
Forced migration for environmental reasons
Degradation of land and resources
o Step migration a serious of shorter, less extreme migrations from a persons place
of origin to final destination moving from a farm, to a village, to a town and
finally to a city.
o Chain migration a series of migration within a family or defined group of people.
It often begins with a family member who moves to a new country and sends
money to his family to bring them to this new location.
o Return migration (Circular migration) the voluntary movements of migrants back
to their place of origin.
o Seasonal migration a process of changing locations for a period of time in
response to labor or climate conditions.
Why do people migrate? o Push factors: reasons for emigrating forces, conditions, difficulties (war, famine,
coercion, disasters, etc.)
o Pull factors: reasons for immigration incentives, opportunities, jobs,
2. Discuss the implications of varying age structure of the population of
The age distribution and growth rate of a countrys population can pose significant
3 types of populations:
o Youthful growing population
Feeding, clothing and education a growing population of young people
entering their productive years
National economies must be able to provide jobs for them economic
growth is urgently needed.
Increase in crime due to unemployment, dissatisfaction with inadequate
o Stable population
o Aging shrinking population
Expensive health care and support services to populations that are
Labor forces are shrinking (those people of working age) while having to
support increasing numbers of retired people
Economic slowdown due to decrease in production
3. Discuss the possible impacts of population growth on the economy of
3 conflicting views on the population growth and its relation to the economy of the
o The pessimistic theory - population growth restricts economic growth.
Excessive growth is threat to food supplies and natural resources
Solution: Need for a widespread implementation of family planning
o The optimistic theory population growth promotes economic growth
Population growth permits a greater degree of division of labor
Will result in an increase in the average standard of living
Resourceful people will allow available resources to expand
More people will mean bigger markets, more specialization and more
brains to solve problems
o The neutralist theory population growth is independent of economic growth
4. Discuss major causes of worlds environmental problems:
o Overpopulation is the root cause o UN estimates 4/5 of global population has inadequate resources such as food,
housing and safe drinking water
Consumer rate of natural resources
o Excessive consumption by wealthier countries
o Energy and material consumption in Canada is 3-5 times the world average
highest consumption of energy in the world
o Economic growth depends upon excessive consumption rate of natural resources
Pollution and waste
o Natural sources of pollution
Forest fires usually triggered by lightning
Decomposition of organic matter
o Human sources of pollution
Immediate and concentrated oil spills
Gradual and global carbon emissions
** Pollution is often local in source, but global in impact.
** All the other issues are associated with these 3.
5. What are population related problems:
Lack of access to:
o Adequate sanitation
o Enough fuel for heating and cooking
o Clean drinking water
o Adequate health care
o Enough food for good health
o Environmental impacts
Land use change urbanization, agriculture, deforestation.
o Economic growth requires more dependence on natural resources
o Migration movement from one location to another
6. Discuss world food problems and different causes for them.
o Lack of calories or nutrients
o Inadequate/unbalanced diet
o 3 billion worldwide developing countries
o Too many calories
o Fat, sugar, salt
o Developed countries
Agriculture related problems
o Supply environmental problems
o Pollution use of chemicals, and artificial inputs o Food waste
o Developed countries
Overexploitation of fishing
Decrease in available land
o Urbanization and other competition for land
Lack of education and technology
o Developing countries
Unfair economy - efficiency
o We have enough food but there is still hunger. This is due to the economic
- Inadequate distribution of available supplies
- Harmful economic system
- Physical or human circumstances
- Natural hazards
- Lack of arable land
- Conflicts, wars
- Climate change
o Land droughts
o Heating off the ocean
o Changing weather storms, flooding, etc.
7. What are the elements of Green Revolution, and its environmental
Green Revolution refers to the adaptation of modern chemical farming techniques, both in
developed and developing countries since the 1950s.
It has enabled the continued increase in yields.
3 basic elements:
Obtaining more output from a given areas of agricultural land
Average gain harvest doubles since 1961
Auxiliary/artificial inputs; capital, external energy flow (fossil fuels),
chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides), irrigation
Mixing different species of organisms to create a hybrid
Based on genetic combination found in nature
o Genetically Modified Organisms, GMOs
Combining genes from different and often unrelated species
o Animal welfare
o Human health