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GEOG 327 Study Guide - Final Guide: Tourism, Sustainable Tourism, Conspicuous Consumption

Course Code
GEOG 327
Alison Gill
Study Guide

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Study Guide
1. Main Theories
Changing Factors of Access
Mobility in Time and Space
Years: Permanent migration to a new country/area
Months: Seasonal migration → snowbirds, educational
tourism, extended holidays
Weeks: Destination holidays and travel
Days: Short holidays, business trips
Hours: Recreation, local leisure commuting
Consumer decision-making: Tourists are buying an experience,
not just a tangible item. Different factors will play into what the
tourist decides to consume, a different type of trip (backpacking vs.
beach vacation), where to go, what food to eat, etc. →
conspicuous consumption, travelling to make yourself look good
Challenges to tourism in the developing world: danger of
dependancy, seasonal variation of residents will change the
financial flows into the country, unpredictable influences from
external forces that cannot be controlled (currency crashes, natural
disasters), competition for new places and new experiences,
tourism is only a means of starting change and is not the be all and
end all
Globalization: “the shrinking world” due to increased mobility,
technology, and means of communication, cultures are easier to
blend in together, places are easier to travel to
Sustainability: 4 main principles
Eliminate contribution to harvesting substances that are dug
up from the earth’s crust (fossil fuels, minerals)
Eliminate contribution of GHGs, chemicals and other
components that increase climate change
Eliminate physical degredation of nature and natural habitats
and resources
Eliminate contributions to poverty

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Environment as a commodity: The creation of natural parks is a
way of commodifying the environment, but also teaches knowledge
about the environment and sustainability, preservation, and
conservation. Commodified in the sense that the areas are
preserved for people to go see, “bucket list” items in the states to
see the National Parks
3 states of conservation tourism: coexistence, conflict,
Coexistence: small development or still in early stages
Conflict: most common, conflict between tourist
developments and conservation
Symbiosis: desired state, tourism offers economic surplus for
conservation efforts
Tourism impacts on the environment: positive & negative:
basically conservation, preservation, and education are the only
good things, and everything else is just the shitty things that
humans do (pollution, overconsumption, carrying capacity, affecting
landscape aesthetic, urbanization of tourist areas)
Ecotourism: benefits and costs: Also pretty self-explanatory,
understand the need of preservation
Tourist gaze what the tourist wants to see, visual consumption
Acculturation blend of culture, ( when we go to a place we take
some & we leave some) e.g. “Tex-Mex”
Authenticity constantly reinventing itself through a social process,
what is truly authentic? How important is authenticity to travellers
(do they want the authentic Italian experience when they are
visiting Italy?) → Stage authenticity is put in place to appease
visitors, creates the aspect of the area of what they are coming to
see, but might be wholly be a part of the area → First Nations art
placed in numerous places around Vancouver
Commodification: Tourists “buy” their destination, want to get
what they pay for → Marketing and Advertising by municipal, state,
and federal tourism agencies → must deliver what the are
marketing to the tourists
Social factors affecting capacity to absorb tourism at a
destination: Irridex Model: locals feelings towards tourists go from
euphoria → apathy → annoyance → antagonism.
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