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GERO 420- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 34 pages long!)


Department
Gerontology
Course Code
GERO 420
Professor
Andrew Wister
Study Guide
Final

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SFU
GERO 420
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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4 common research approaches: a historical comparison of early & later societies; a
comparison of 2 or more somewhat similar societies at the same point in time; a
comparison of Eastern w/ Western societies; a comparison of developed w/ developing
regions or countries.
Filial piety: is embedded in Eastern cultures. Not found in the West.
Immigrants 2 types w/ distinct needs: those who arrived years ago & have grown old in
Canada; those who arrived here in later life.
Marginalization: immigrants adhere to their traditional diet, which can create dietary &
adaptation problems in hospitals or long-term-care facilities. Compounded by illiteracy,
poverty, & lack of transportation.
Culture: provides a symbolic order & a set of shared meanings to social life & includes
values, beliefs, attitudes, norms, customs, & knowledge.
Acculturation: cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or
borrowing traits from another culture.
Values: internalized criteria by which members select & judge goals & behavior in
society. they are trans-situational & are found in most institutions in a society.
Beliefs: an individuals conception of the world. Statement about what is thought to be
true as opposed to what is real or desirable.
Norms: acceptable or expected behavior in specific social situations.
Ethnocentrism: members regards their mainstream culture as superior to all others.
Influence how we behave toward people from other cultures. It can foster insensitivity to
those who are different & can influence practices.
Chronological or perceived age is an important factor in the stratification of many
societies & that the status of older people varies b/t societies & within a society at
different historical periods.
Anthropology of aging: investigates how culture shapes the social & economic status of
older people in a society, the social roles of adults at different stages in life, the rituals
associated w/ aging & dying, & whether age discrimination is a factor in a societys
social organization.
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3 types of societies according to level of industrialization & modernization: primitive
hunting-and-gathering societies; pre-industrial societies; post-industrial & postmodern
societies.
Archetypes of age: physical features of old age; differences b/t old & younger members
of a society; the relevance of gender in constructing old-age imagery.
Before the industrial revolution, only 2 types of societies existed: primitive hunting-and-
gathering tribes & agrarian-peasant communities.
Modernization: the process by which a society moved from the pre-industrial to the
industrial world. It accounts for the declining status of older persons, except in societies
where they continued to perform valued functions.
Some argues the position of older people improved w/ increased mechanization.
Older people living closer to a metropolitan area are the first to lose status, especially if
the yare members of an already devalued group.
As societies modernize, changes in family structures & in traditional values weaken the
informal social support network previously supplied by the family.
Educational policy can sustain filial piety in the face of modernization. Filial piety was
less prominent among individuals w/ higher education.
The status of elderly people was highest in societies that had a surplus of food & where
the oldest members controlled property, had knowledge of survival skills, rituals, &
customs, or held religious roles.
In societies where food was scarce, where property was nonexistent, where leadership
was based on ability rather than on longevity or family ties, older people were sometimes
abandoned or put to death.
Older men commanded greater respect than older women.
Anishinabe (original people): elders played a traditional role by transmitting knowledge
& culture to the children of the tribe.
Changes in Japan traditional cultural ideology: young adults are moving to large cities,
far from their rural roots, where traditional norms & values prevail; traditions such as
respect for older people & caring for ones parents are weakening; b/c of a shortage of
special housing for older people, retirement communities are being built, & older affluent
persons are seeking a more independent lifestyle.
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