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HIST 101
Willeen Keough

Loyalists in Quebec - Eastern townships too vulnerable to American attack. - Gov. Haldimand -- settle them north of Lake Ontario - Had to get Natives' consent (proclamation of 1763) -- during this time, indian territory was large Native peoples frustated - left out of the treaty process -- lands---> US -- US not bound by Proclamation of 1763; no longer part of british colonies - Different views: -- British: buying land -- Natives: sharing land - Natives end up losing valuable agricultural land. Grand River--- modern south ontario - 1784, Land grant given to Mohawk loyalalists and six nations allies, on either side of the Grand river. - they felt safer in British territory and better off; six nations fought with British against americans during revolution. -- six nations had to move from modern New York in order to take advantage of this grant. - British were glad to have allies on frontier against americans. "Late Loyalists" - arrived in 1790s - some vacated british trading posts in US territory -- more so immigrants than refugees. - others were attracted by land grants. Constitution Act 1791 - Split Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada - Upper canada (modern Ontario) -- British laws -- English-speaking majority -- freehold tenure: allowed to apply for a land grant. - Lower Canada (modern Quebec) -- French-speaking majority -- French civil law -- seigneurial system allowed to continue where it existed, but new land grants are under new system -- freehold tenure for future grants - elected assembly -- local taxes -- ensured loyalty from settlers. - Appointed legislative council -- could --- introduce own bills --- veto bills from assembly - Lieutenant-Governor, Governor -- Could --- reserve consent to bills --- dismiss assemblies. **** important: appointed council had more power. conservative - property qualification - powerful appointed officials - legislative council had a lot of power, appointed for life, given large land grants (all to establish a stable elite force/ colonial "aristocracy") - "clergy reserves": 1/7 of land were worked by people and money goes to church -- no separation of church and state - countered radical tendencies. Upper Canada - First Liuetenant governor John Simcoe - wanted to replicate English aristocracy and create a "little England" in Canada" -- appointed those in his own class, gave them large grants of land, and patronage positions. Made sure they got government contracts -- added to the wealth and power of those in his own class. - Not popular with american immigrants. The idea of such a tightly controlled govt wasn't appealing to anyone. - established local govt, social services in districts and towns. - Set wheels in motion to stop slavery Cult of Dishonesty - middle-class ideals of feminitiy - marriage, strategy to form alliances - focus on motherhood and domestic realm - make homes moral havens - some informal power -- had power in domestic realm, but lives were constrained within domestic realm Lower Canada - English-speaking elite -- patronage -- contracts -- e
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