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HIST 101
Willeen Keough

Immigration to Maritimes after 1815 - Push factors (reasons that push one to leave their country) -- economic recession --land clearances -- landlord oppression : raised rents to get rid of people for further industrialization. -- religious discrimination : Catholics and protestants from different sector. -- exclusion from politics - Pull Factors() -- socio-economic advancement: politics -- independence Maritimes: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, PEI Immigrant Diversity - scotland -- commerce, timber trade in New Brunswick , shipbuilding, agriculture - Ireland -- timber trade, agriculture, politics, religious tensions - Wales, Europe, Africa, Asia -- immigration was easy: timber in New Brunswick exported to Britain, empty spaces for immigrants on the way back mostly went to Nova Scotia and PEI commercial economy, 1815-1860s - boom in economy -- staples -- shipbuilding -- carrying trade -- coal-mining -- manufacturing and food processing - raliway: first one built in 1839 - banks Domestic Economy - still ""self-sufficient"families-- farming, fishing, hunting - Bartering, not cash - "Truck system" -- labour--- supplies, equipment -- workers bound to merchants Social Relations - paternalism, patriarchy, deference - deference to social superiors - women, children subordinates in formal law. -- womens' informal power: within household, women were contributing a lot, and had more influence than public thought they had Religion - Anglican, Cathoilc, Presbyterian - Evangelicalism -- disliked hierarchical structures, individual communication with God. - schools, newspapers, charities, mission--- work of churches, govt not involved yet. - Religion bled into local politics -- anglo-prot/irish catholic tensions. Political Reform - Competing ideologies: -- conservatism: small elite holding power and property -- Liberalism: power for all men of property, still a small group, but not as small as conservatives. -- Egalitarianism: more inclusive democracy, equality for every man, regardless of how much property they own. -- Socialism: e
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