Song dynasty: 960-1276
Northern Song: 960-1127:
Southern Song: 1128-1276
1. Commercial revolution: selling; coin to paper money; invent compress, hand guns, maps.
Example: Peace Reigns over the river. Technology is quite advanced: gun powder; high quality
paper; painting press. Compress
Reasons for commercial revolution:
Not so much money on military
New technology of farming, double production of rice
Good transportation, make the commercial activities more convince.
2. Political effect: influenced by neighbor counties: Liao; Xi Xia; Jin. Song didn’t pay much resource
3. Scholar: use civil exam; Teachers and scholars are respected. New Confucius: Zhu xi’s neo-
4. Religions: altogether: Confucius& Daoism & Buddhism (Peace Reigns over the river)
“Women and the problems they create”
Women power increase, more independent; Wang balang’s wife can earn their own
money by doing business.
Women can choose to divorce
They have legal system
Yuan Dynasty: 1276-1368
1. Reason to expand:
Global cooling: not so much grass to feed animals.
Aggressive in nature
2. Mongol rules:
Classify people into four categories: P257
Central and Western Asians
Southern Song Civil exam was cancelled, and then it was taken back. But Mongol people still account
for a largest percent. For example, Mongol people account for 1.4%, but they can be
30% of people who pass the exam. Zhu xi’s teaching becomes the standard curriculum.
3. Why Mongol rules are disaster?
Corruption: According to primary resource “Injustice to Tou O, Act 3” Officials accept
money to make injustice judgment to people.
Mongol did well with water. Print more paper money to cover expense, which lead to
inflation. People return to use coin and even barter instead of paper money.
Natural disaster: disease; poverty, which lead to rebellion
4. Yuan Drama
Zhao mengfu: Painter, calligraphy;
Zhao mengfu’s wife: Guan daosheng, Painter, calligraphy
“Injustice to Tou O”
Confucius: Tou O treat her mother-in-law really good
Exam is a way to be officials, so Tou tianzhang sell his daughter to go for exams.
Mandate of heaven: pray to the heaven to punish bad people. Three wishes
Ming Dynasty: 1368-1644
1. Zhu yuanzhang: (Hongwu): distrust people around him, he wants to be in control.
Alliance with local society
Testing the system
Distrust of everyone
Community elder system
Qing Dynasty: 1636-1911 Important terms: