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Department
History
Course
HIST 277
Professor
Jermey Milloy
Semester
Fall

Description
Unit 1- Aegean Civilization  The bronze age civilization of Greece and the Aegean  include Crete, the Cyclades, and Greek mainland  The Cyclades and Greek mainland joined together in the Minyan period, Crete joined in middle Minoan  Greek Mycenaean spread to Crete Unit Questions How did the geography of Greece influence Ancient Greek political development and philosophy?  Greece is a lot of islands so it must have been difficult to have a unified political entity and therefor more power was probably divided and there was no one unified system.  Communities developed separately  Mountains provided protection. Which factors contributed to the emergence of ancient civilisation in Greece?  The lands that were already populated attracted them  Crete – Minoan civilization o Influenced the most Aegean areas o Greek Mycenaean culture – over sea trade was what they depended on o Cultural art/other stuff was used for trade with other islands  Cyclades/mainland – distinct cultures Unit Notes  Greek history is based on its local geography  Eastern Mediterranean very different that western  Mainland Greece was full of valleys which allowed agriculture  This did not work, Greece had to import food and export goods to support population  Broken up areas, meant communities(states) developed separately  Different political systems in States  Mountains provided protection  Created fragmented eastern  A lot of island  Western was a chunk of land  Peloponnesus is a peninsula in mainland Greece  Three mountain chains created island where the sea is high  Communication between states was done by sea  Magna Graecia was located in Italy and Sicily  Used the Ionian island route to trade  Initial region of Graeco-Roman rdntact  Greeks migrated to the Balkan in 3 millennium BCE  Migrated to areas that were populated by pre Hellenic groups (non-Greeks)  Crete  Minoan civilization early bronze age (pre-Hellenic)  Cyclades and Mainland  Distinct cultures  Minoan Civilization (2600-1450 BC)  Most influential culture  Was replaced by Mycenaean culture which was based on the Minoans  Was a matriarch society  Worshiped goddess  Used sea to trade art with mainland Greece (Mycenae)  Minoans were conquered by Mycenaean’s 1420 BCE  Who adapted Minoan’s Linear A to Linear B (Mycenaean)  Collapse allowed Mycenaean dominance Unit 2 – Mycenaean Greece - Last phase of bronze age in Greece (historical setting for Iliad and odyssey) o Located in Peloponnesus Unit Questions What were the main characteristics of Mycenaean civilisation?  Major part of Greek mythology  Wealth was symbolized through the ornamental tombs  Palace states were enforced  Linear B Tablets were formed  Beehive tombs were used for noble me What regional factors made the rise of Mycenaean Greece possible?  Deities were very similar to classical Greek myth  Citadels and fortresses that were in the center of the city allowed piracy o They would raid other areas for gold and wealth Unit Notes  Mycenaean Civilization (1600-1100BCE)  Collapse occurred 1200 BCE because of Dorian invasion  Common cultures started to form  Can be seen in pottery  Had to trade for precious goods  Traded in east and west  Established settlements along trade routes  Mycenae location  Placement on hill allowed for a strategic and defensive position  Had water resource, and agriculture  Mycenaean palaces  Were the center of political, economic, and religious powers  Palace states were ruled by kings  Mycenaean religion  Temples were called pantheons  Deities were very similar to classical Greek mythology  But there are many differences with some gods  Troy was also defeated by Mycenaean’s  The Trojan was developed slowly with some traditional and historical evidence  the Iliad by homer tells the story about the Trojan war   Greek Mainland (1400-1250BCE)  Peloponnesus and central Greece prosperous  Demonstrated in the gold and precious materials used in Mycenaean tombs/burials  Collapse (1150BCE)  Decrease in population/literacy  The Dorian’s  Invasion lead to fall of Mycenaean  Modern term (Dorian invasion)  Dorian’s were speakers of a major Greek dialect  Achaeans, Ionians, and Aeolian were the other populations  Spread quickly creating sub dialects Unit 3 – The end of the Mycenaean Civilization Unit Questions What were some of the consequences of the Greek Dark Ages?  New developed language  Violence occurred everywhere between foreign powers, cultures were lost o Little cultural progress and less trade and economic growth  Loss of literacy due to destruction of palaces How elaborate was the transformation of the Greek society during this period?  Greeks became impoverish  Loss of kingships o Aristocracy came into place  Power was shared with king and nobles  Titles and lineage became very important  Political unity started to occur  Warfare tactics were bad, became infant like  Trojan war Unit Notes  The end of the Mycenaean Civilization  Known as the Dark Ages (1100BCE)  rise to Greek city states (750BCE)  different cultures were lost resulting in little cultural progress and little economic growth  epic of homer were recorded (800BCE)  using new Greek alphabet based on Phoenician script  Dark ages saw a decline in art  Only pottery remain  Clay pottery art was more imaginative and complex then the Mycenaeans  Living in the Dark Ages  The Greeks of the dark ages lived in fewer and smaller settlements then the Mycenaeans  Due to famine and depopulation  Athens remained strong and continued to create culture and become a power  Greek Dialects  Displayed the widespread changes that occurred  The Arcadian, Aeolic, ionic all represent Mycenaean dialects  Dorian and north-western were very similar  The end of the Greek Kings  Continued to rule but power was weakened  Eventually replaced by aristocracy  City-states became a political unity  Sparta had formed around (9BCE)  Athens switched from a palace state into a city state but kings were still there  Mythology became important for people to trace back their bloodlines (Trojan war heroes)  Population slowly started to increase  Meant colonization of new areas  Colonization of the Eastern Aegean  Dorian invasion lead to people moving to Asia Minor (across Aegean)  took two centuries to complete colonization  Asia minor allowed a broken terrain which allowed for state development  Rise of a New writing system  Linear B was forgotten but new Etruscan language formed (800BCE)  Homeric tradition  Homer was born in Ionia  Writing shows knowledge of land and time  Did not reference the Dorian invasion  The Iliad and the odyssey are epics that were used to represent oral tradition  Caused a cultural unity (Greek were Hellenes)  No political unity, city states continued to form Unit 4- Classical Greece I Unit Questions Which factors prevented the creation of a unified Greek state?  Difference in beliefs  Different systems of government  States being too far apart from each other  The sense of community found in the states What were the main consequences of Persian invasions on the Greek world? st  1nd defeated  2 invasion, Persia ruined Athens (destroyed)  Tried to attack Egypt, Persia was then conquered by Alexander the great  Caused other countries to align with Greece making it larger and more powerful Unit Notes  Terracotta Krater  Isolation of geek world started to breakdown  Appearance of first written record in 800BCE  Population started to grow  City states faced an overpopulation  750BCE Greeks expanded colonies  New Prosperity  Greek colonized the west  Colonies started to flourish  The colonies of the Mediterranean, Adriatic and Black sea widened Greece  Economically and culturally (6ooBCE)  Political Greek World  Colonies retained religious links with city states  No controlled publically by founding states  The economic development of Greece and its colonies was large (600BCE)  Improvement in living standards  Peak was at 400BCE  Abolishment of monarch (700BCE)  War occurred over land in city states  Introduction of coinage (650BCE)  Warrior aristocracy = landowners  Had to be populist leaders which mad them tyrants  They throw out monarchs with the help of the people  Athens and Sparta Athens (naval power)  Abolished monarchy in 683BCE  Had an aristocratic government  Overthrown by Prosotraus (tyrant)  Tyrants made Athens into a great naval power  500BCE democracy was established  Power was with only males (must be citizens of Athens to vote)  Sparta (land power)  Aristocracy stayed in power  Lycurgus formalized a military by a dual monarchy (650BCE)  Dominated Peloponnesus and city states with force  Spartans wanted to restore tyrants in Athens  Conflicts with Persia  Greco-Persia wars/Medic wars  Conflict with Greek city states and Persia empire (500-448BCE)  not fought with all city states  some allied with Persia/some with Greece/neutral  Persia got involved because they conquered an area of Greece’s  by making war on a city state Lydian (619-650)  Famous conflicts  Two Persian invasions of the Greek mainland (490BCE) and (480-479BCE)  First invasion  Ionians rebelled against Persians with the help of Athens Persian were defeated  Second invasion  King Xerxes took an army to mainland Greece  Caused Greek army to move south  Persia moved towards Athens, who evacuated the city  The link between the battle of Salamis and Athenian political theory was that the battle made political theory possible  Alexander the Great (Athenian) conquered Persia  Athens filled the vacuum, forming the Delian League  Sparta became alarmed with Athens political and economic power in Greece Unit 5 Unit Questions What were the causes of Greek civil war?  Growth of Athena power in Aegean and beyond  Athens took over as leaders in Greek war effort after Persia’s withdrawal  Trade sanctions caused Sparta to feel bad  War occurred What were some of the long-term changes brought about by the Peloponnesian War?  Athens' dominance of the Greek world was shattered. o lost its empire, power of the seas was lost  Sparta became the dominant power  Greek world suffered great destruction, which allowed Persia to have a dominating say in Greek affairs.  Macedonia progressively Alexander o Destruction of Persia started  After Alexander's death most of the Greek and Persian worlds were partitioned between Alexander's generals as Hellenistic kingdoms which spread Greek culture through the Middle East. Unit Notes  Athens and Sparta  Completion for power lead to the Peloponnesian War (431-404BCE)  Was a civil war  Consequences reshaped Greek world with Sparta as the victor  Loss of human life  Economic decline – resulted in widespread poverty  Attica was lost, Athens never regained it prosperity  Civil war became frequent  Which lead to the end of the golden age of Greece  Tension between Athens and Sparta  Sparta started war because of Athens power growth (431BCE)  Delian league became Athenian empire  Used taxes to make Parthenon  Use economic sanctions against city states  Crossed the line by posing these on Sparta’s ally  Tried to solve things (Sparta) didn’t work –lead to war  War strategies  The two powers were not able to fight proper battles because of their different strengths  Infant soldiers or hoplites were used to fight small battles then return home to rule over slaves  Phase one of the Fight  Archidamian War  Sparta raided Athens’s city state Attica  Athens hit Peloponnesian cost  Some states used war to get out of Athens’s control  The plague cause Athenian defeat  War concluded in 421BCE (peace of Nicias)  The Sicilian Expedition  Peace did not last long  Second phase of war started  Athens took war to Magna Graecia  Sparta took the side against Athens  Sparta won, making Athenian army slaves  Phase 3  Decelean War(Ionian War)  Sparta hit Athens’s city state (Ionia)  Sparta allied with Persian Empire (ironic)  Athens surrender in 404BCE  New political Geography  Sparta was nice and added Athens to their power system  Were no able to build their own empire  Took to their own affairs leaving a power vacuum  Kingdom of Macedon took over the power  Macedonians  Aegean Greeks was Macedonians as semi barbarians  Because of monarch system  King Philip II created tension in the south city states  Believed to be Dorian Greeks  Many theories about their relatives and their language Unit 6 – Alexander the Great Unit Questions What factors made Alexander the Great’s conquests possible?  His personality  Need for power  Had a great army  Ego What kind of empire Alexander the Great envisioned?  A unified Greek civilization  Combined state of Macedon, Persia and Egypt Unit Notes  Development of Macedon  King Phillip II expanded Macedon territory all the way south till central  King Philip II of Macedon was alexander the great’s father  Macedon’s society and Culture  Culture was Hellenization  Retained many archaic features  King ruling, polygamy  Alexander the Great  Aristotle was alexander’s tutor  Leonidas was a tutor  Found him to be spoiled  Proved military abilities during battle of Chaeronea  won the Persian war  Alexander had to control many rebellions but he succeed in diminishing them by submission  After burning Thebes to the ground, Greece was Alexander’s  Went to conquer Persia  Conquest of the Persian Empire  Battle of Granicus  Macedonian victory  Pushed Persians out of Greece  Battle of Issus (333BCE)  Complete victory of Macedonians  Took over Persia and Egypt  Gaugamela  Alexander Destroyed many cities in Persia after Darius  Won battle, burned the city  Alexander’s ego led him to destroy many cities  Completed his conquest of Persian empire (328BCE)  Alexander’s Authority  Adopted many customs to satisfy all the title given to him  Seen as insulting to the Greeks  His own men wanted to kill him for his hubris  Towards India  Decided to match to India (326BCE)  Prepared for war and continued his quest for land  Alexander’s army started a munity against him because of his quest  They refused to march on  Forced to turn around, ran into a clan and started a battle  Alexander was injured, many of his soldiers died for dehydration  Death of Alexander  Alexander envisioned his empire as Combined state of Macedon, Persia and Egypt  Alexander’s ultimate goal was to achieve Homonoia which is unity of mankind  Cause of death is unknown (323BCE)  Legacy was as violent as his conquests  Son was murdered  After death there was many wars (Diadoch) to control portions of Alexander’s empire Unit 7- Hellenistic Greece Unit Questions What were the Hellenism’s greatest qualities and how did it become a global system and culture?  Time of philosophy, exploration o Philosophers came about  Museum of Alexandria was founded o Made Greece’s an area for critical study  Philosophy and literature  Culture provide art/paintings/mosaics  Based on culture and custom  Created a global economy  Greek language became known  Greek financial system  Greek law What were the principle events and factors that led to the decline of the Hellenistic Kingdoms and their conquest by Rome?  Revolts within kingdoms  3 wars were fought o Rome conquered areas  1 Macedonian war – stalemate between Phillip and Rome nd  2rdar – romans won  3 war – romans won, Macedon was divided  Romans dominated Mediterranean Unit Notes  The start of the Roman Empire  Death of Alexander the Great (323BCE) marked the beginning of Hellenistic period  Empire was broken into Hellenistic kingdoms  Was a period of exploration and new philosophers  Fell to the roman empire, but Greek language and culture still influence  The struggle of alexander’s succession  Empires was very large and areas enjoyed autonomy  Many war occurred between the Diadoch to control the parts of the empire  The Diadoch were Alexander the Greats successors  Many Generals remained in charge of separate areas of the empire  Antipater tried to rule Macedon and take advantage of the power vacuum  Laminar War  Lead to great destruction of the Diadoch  Alexander’s family was killed (310BCE)  Antigonus II of Macedon fought against the Ptolemies  The ptolemic kingdom was in Egypt  Battles were won (267BCE)  Antigonus’s family remained in power and the balance of power occurred  Hellenes were able to develop talents  Became interested in astrology  The globalization of Hellenism  City states were over, kingdoms started  Legacy of Classical period applied  Creative achievement  Exploration of new lands  Astronomers  Museum of Alexandria was founded  Best known paintings were made during this period  Hellenism was a system dependent on culture and custom  Inclusive of everyone, Greece became a cosmopolitan  Standardization of financial system  Established business practices which empower Hellenism throughout the area  Travel became easier, which aided business  Taxes were used to pay for expenditures  Law  Greek law was mixed with local law  Hellenizing the territories  Making them take on Greek attributes  Each area need a polis to rule  Creation of agora  Gymnasiums (school) was the first to be built, theatre, government, public baths  Philosophy became very important  Astrology was used to define the fate of people  Most famous was Zeno, founded Stoicism (301BCE)  Was about self-control and indifference to distracting emotion  Aristippus founded cyrenaicism (400BCE)  Only intrinsic good is pleasure  Value of social obligation  Pleasure can be gained from altruistic behaviour  School died out and replaced by Epicureanism  Epicurus was also famous founded Epicureanism (307BCE)  Embraced modest pleasures and realizing happiness  Abstain from physical desires  Believed in the materials  Diogenes founded Cynicism  Living life like a dog  Rules were bondage  Macedonian Wars and Roman Conquest  Kingdoms faced revolts from inside and outside their lands  3 wars were fought between Rome and Macedon  Started with Philip V’s desire to expand  The first Macedonian War (215-205 BCE)  Indecisive, unable to dominate Illyria, Romans unable to hurt Macedon  The Second Macedonian War (197BCE)  Roman victory, Philip lost his ally but still fought  Romans continued to expand and influence Greek kingdoms  The Third Macedonian War (168BCE)  Philip’s son united with other weakened kingdoms and fought against Rome  Defeated kingdoms, Macedon was divided into four roman republics  63BCE Hellenistic kingdoms were turned into Roman provinces  Only Ptolemaic Egypt remained independent  Roman’s entered Alexandria (30BCE) Cleopatra and Anthony died  Egypt became a roman province  Dominated over the Mediterranean  Hellenism culture and tradition had a strong influence on Roman ruler of the region Unit 8 - The Transition to the Eastern Empire Unit Questions What were the magnitudes and the limitations of Hellenism’s influence on the Roman Empire?  Education, art and philosophy had a great impact and in Roman empire o Christianity was a powerful religion  Still had city states, traditions were important for romans lacked them  Greek architecture was found to be beautiful and in Rome  Science were adopted o Calendar was made Unit Notes  Transition to the Eastern Empire  The conquering of the Hellenistic kingdoms lead to the meshing of Greek and Roman culture  Hellenism proved to be very popular with romans  Christianity became a powerful religious force  Roman empire became more Greek and Christian  A longstanding influence  Romans found teachings, technologies and other learning that they lacked  Greek influence was not liked by all  Romans adapted Hellenic practices of diplomacy  First Punic War ( 264-241BCE)  Roman won, took to Greek architecture and brought it over to Roman cities  Hellenized their cities  Science  Julius Caesar created the calendar  Education was a sign of wealth  Hellenism and Graeco-Roman culture  Romans adopted Greek clothing and fashion  Greek language became the second language of the empire (100BCE)  Tutors were forcefully taken to Rome  Polybius’s famous pupil was Scipoi Aemilianus  Roman Reaction and Resistance  Greek culture was seen as the ruin of Rome  Cato resisted against Greek culture  Hated public naked bathes  Cato admired Greek literature  Cato’s outlook on Greeks achievements we realistic  Advent of Christianity  Traditional they worshipped pagan gods  Cults from around the area came to Rome  Isis was very similar to Virgin Mary  The cult of Isis converted to Christianity  Greek influences  Christianity grew from the teaching of Jesus  Title of Christ comes from Greek  Apostle Paul said Thessaloniki served as Christianity’s gateway to Europe  Many teachings of Christianity can be found in stoicism  Made use of Greek philosophical tradition  Transformations  Constantine became emperor in 312BCE  Nietzsche – original betrayal  The theory of original betrayal – Christianity became different from the founder ideas and wishes  Christianity and Hellenistic religions are trumped up stories – betrayal  Reimarus- original fraud  Hellenistic ruler cults exploited new religions – original fraud  Herder-fulfillment  The separation of salvation – fulfilment Unit 9 – Constantine to Julian Unit Questions What was Constantine’s relationship with Christianity?  Adopted mothers culture  Patron of the church and set a position for the emperor in church  “Christian monarch”  Religion bound the empire together  Saw Christianity as a political tool  Tolerant of pagans Assess the changes to the Empire in the 4th century. How could the empire best be categorized at the end of the brief reign of Julian?  Military success like alexander the great  Renounced Christianity and used pagan  Restored Hellenistic heritage  Limited the power of the church  Following death, Christianity became dominate How did Constantine transform the empire?  Went back to pagan traditions Were his policies unique, or was he simply and opportunist who applied many of the policies implemented by his predecessors?  Changed many policies, went back to pagan traditions Unit Notes  Constantine the Great(324-337CE)  Transformed roman empire., transformed Byzantium (capital city)  Brought the empire together by Christianity  Successor Julian brought Hellenism back  Julian had tolerance for all religions but favoured paganism  Ruled with Licinius, but eventually led to war (324CE)  Licinius ruled the east of the empire  Constantine won, remained emperor till(337CE)  Constantine and Christianity  Before Constantine’s victory at battle of Milvian Bridge 312 he saw a cross that led his victory  The edict of Milan legalized Christianity under Constantine’s rule  Tolerant to paganism  Pagans had difficulty with Constantine because the Christian god was a jealous god and Constantine wanted everyone to pray to the Christian god  Many branches of Christianity  The Donatists (African group) split with Orthodox Church  Constantine eventually sided with Orthodox  The meeting between Bishop Ambrose and Emperor Theodosius  Theodosius submitted to Ambrose marking a shift to Christianization by the state  Constantine’s city  Transformed from Pagan to Christian  Founded Byzantium as his own city  Called Constantinople (better than Rome, dubbed “new Rome”)  Constantine’s successors  Sons strengthen Christianity  Julian was Constantine’s half grandson an was sole control of the empire  Julian the Hellenist  Brought back Hellenism  “new alexander the great”  Renounced his Christianity and convert to pagan  Brought back all attributes of Hellenistic society  Favoured pagans but did not harm Christians  Died in battle against Persians  Christianity became dominate after his death  The Byzantine empire  Continuation of Roman empire  Term used to distinguish early romans to latter day  Started under Constantine  Multicultural empire set it apart from Roman empire Unit 10 – Theodosius to Justinian Unit Questions How did Theodosius stabilize the empire?  Signed a treaty with the Goths  Used army’s power against the west  Christianity stabilized it Unit Notes  The vulnerable Empire  Julian’s death left a power vacuum  Jovian became leader  Christian which did away with paganism  Valentinine ruled, and his brother Valens  Empire went in to recession  Expansion in Germanic lands brought the Goths and Vandals together  Battle of Adrianople  Disaster for the empire  Valens was killed during the battle of Adrianople  Goths won which was seemed as a fluke  Theodosius to the Rescue  Theodosius took over power in east  Was sent to save Constantinople  Made peace with Persians  Defeated Goths together  Went after the west  Theodosius was not tolerant and killed those who went against him  Stabilized the empire  Solidified Christianity hold on empire by giving bishops power  Church remained intertwined with Byzantine throne  The collapse of the west  Theodosius’ sons were too young to rule on their own  Goth’s started to revolt  Eventually the fights were too much and the Huns to over, ending Roman rule  Attila’s Huns and the survival of the east  Attila took power over the east   Power was unrivaled  Hun empire  Had charm. Intellect and cunning od Attila  Adapted to Roman empire’s code of diplomacy  His empire only lasted as long as his life  Huns never recovered after the death  The death of Attila the Hun endangered the western empire, created a vacuum  The collapse of the Western Roman Empire occurred because of political consequences of immigration by the Huns  Justin, Justinian, and Theodora  Justine I (519) became emperor  Made sure nephew became well educated(Justinian)  Put his uncle on the throne  Hippodromes  Were race tracks where chariot racing occurred  Large factions came about  Greens  Blues  Became bitter rivals  Justin I death lead to Justinian coming to power with wife Theodora (political skills)  Allied with the blues  Procopius (historian) uses buildings as a work or propaganda to portray Justinian favourably  Rule and the Nika Riot  Justinian limited actions of pagans  Was disliked by his people because of harsh treatment  Wife believed in him  Many people died in the riot  Which ended nearly ended his reign  Was forced to rebuild Constantinople  Especially Hagia Sofia  Was rebuilt to define the Byzantine Empire (most famous)  The re-conquest of the west  Goths took power of Rome (546)  Bubonic plague (541) swept through empire  Justinian took over Rome’s Mediterranean empire, but it wasn’t united  Death of wife took a toll on him Unit 11 – Roman law and Byzantine Society Unit Questions What did Justinian achieve in the creation of the Corpus Juris Civils?  Made over 5 years  Basis of European civil law  Made to standardize and universalize the laws of the empire in documents What do the civil and criminal laws of the Corpus Juris Civils tell us about Byzantine Society in the sixth century?  They became more humanized with law o Slaves could be freed easily  Family law empowered women  Church had power in criminal law  Literal punishments for criminals What are some of the indications that the Byzantine Empire of the fifth and sixth century was a wealthy and well established society?  Legal reforms  Standardization legal and taxation systems imposed  Trade was very successful  Guild organizations  Education  Monastics schools were made for future monks  Churches were decorated with gold Unit Notes  Roman Law and Byzantine society  Cultures of East and west continued to mix  Creating the corpus Juris civilis  Body of Civil Law  Tribonian (Pagan lawyer) wrote Corpus Juris Civils  Occurred in 5 years  Justinian’s greatest and most influential achievement  Basis of European civil law  Roman Law  Prescriptive, represented legal response to cases  More cases = more laws  In 528 Justinian set out to standardize laws of the empire  New laws were made to be enforced and older laws were either reformed or deleted nd  The Institutes, Digest and 2 ed of Codex, formed the Civil law  Became the basis of Byzantine law  Very important  Civil Law  It was humanized and simplified law  Social classes no longer existed  Either citizen or slave  Laws empowered women  Code and punishment  Church had a lot of power in criminal law  Pagans were banned from many positions  Byzantine criminal laws were not religiously motivated  Religious or practical  Justinian believed that sexual offences were the cause of famine, plague and earthquakes  Justinian’s laws about sexuality ensured population growth  Criminal law in Byzantium was more humane that England’s law in 1800  Byzantine society  Society defined itself through Christianity to Roman  Church had influence by legal reforms  Became a way of life for Byzantines  Town and country  From 450-550CE, it was peaceful and prosperous  Pagan temples had become Churches  Byzantines kept the Roman love of Spectacle alive  City centers were diverse and varied  The cities of Byzantine Empire remained Christianised Roman  Cash for culture  Trade was a source of wealth  Guild organizations were renowned for work and contributed to the prosperity  The purity and weight of gold remained constant  Education was class based  Monastic schools groomed young monks  Patriarchal – trained priests  Palace - law  Byzantine Bureaucracy  Sophisticated and was set apart from European Kingdoms  Byzantine’s bureaucracy was more complex than western states  Allowed everyone to be a part of the society Unit 12 – Religions, Monasticism and Cults Unit Questions In what ways had the Byzantine Empire become more religious and what was the significance of this?  Emperors used Christianity to consolidate and expand the rule  Church served the states interests o Allowed church to get lots of money  Those who disagreed with the church, disagreed with the empire  Church dealt with politics and kings stuff Why did monasticism become so popular?  The choice to live humbly and simply meant being close to God  Showed a strict lifestyle which society likes  Did manual labour  Monks were a political factor in the empire What factors account for the popularity of Christian saints and icons?  The role of monks and nuns played holy men and women  Miracle workers  Their place in society remained rather marginal o Remained detached from religious establishment and admired for their devotion  Virgin Mary appealed to those who worshiped Isis or Athena  Christian saints took over the role of healing  There were cults devoted to saints Unit Notes  The Holy Empire  The influence of the church had grown strong and became involved with state policies  Political elites spent time in monasteries because they believe they were living a prophecy or they were failed political rebels who were sentence to live there  Churches and Monasteries were built  Looked very beautiful and ornamental decorated  More churches meant and increase in monks and priests  The church and its politics  Empress Theodora had sympathises for the monophysites  Eventually lead to the creation of Coptic Church  Many were banished or killed  Monastic Life  Appeared in Egypt and then spread rapidly  Monks and nuns were respected for living humbly and simply  Because of culture and legal codes the appeal of monastic life grew  There were 2 monks for 100 people  Life was asceticism which the practice of self-denial of bodily pleasures  Extreme acts of self-denial were called mortification  They were built far away in gross places  The nuns could not interact with men in the workroom  Monasticism was seen as liberating for women  Allowed them to leave their traditional life  Women were allowed in a monastery for the healing tomb, feast day, see a holy shrine, and attend a special service  Most famous monastery was in Mount Athos  The fusion of the Saints  The role of holy men and women were built on pagan tradition  Cults of different cultures had many similarities with Christianity cults  Isis= virgin Mary  Icon worship became popular in the cult of the saints  Justinian and Theodora like iconic style  The Byzantine Empire became devoutly Christian empire  Envisioned by Justinian Unit 13– The Challenge of Islam and Persia Unit Questions What factors account for the rapid decline of the Byzantine Empire after Justinian’s death in 565?  New invasions from east and west  Dark age  Weird policies due to mental illness (Justin II)  Abandoned tributes and created war How did the Byzantines reverse the seemingly hopeless situation of 610 under Herakleios?  Created a holy war against Persia  New military tactics were used  Retreats were used  Restored holy cross to Jerusalem  Defeated Persia Unit Notes  Imperial Implosion  Emperor Justinian Byzantine Empire recovered  Empire unravel after death in 565  New invasions  Lead to dark age  Succeeded by Nephew  Justin II  Suffered from mental illness in 574  Justin abandoned policy of paying tributes to create peace  New emperor Tiberius (578-582) and Maurice (582-602)  Restored peace and lowered taxes  Maurice stabilized regions in battle  Stripped Monophysites of privileges in 584  Continued wars in Balkans against Slavs and avars  Revolt against Maurice 605  Lead by Pholas  Lead to civil war  Reconstruction of Greek Cities  Became fortified ( akropoli)  Cities were reduced  Cities like Sparta were relocated  Some cities disappeared  Under Phokas defences of the empire were weak  Lead to less money for educations and buildings  Religion became very important  Help from Herakleios and the Wars with Persia  Herakleios rebelled against Phokas  Phokas’ rule collapsed  Phokas’ reign was taken over by Herakleios  Arabs were impressed by Heracles by his knowledge of the Quran and his Piety  Islamic traditions presents Herakleios as a recognizer of Islam and a near convert  Balkans had been lost, land was being taken over by Persians  Persian took Jerusalem, Avars/Slavs were closing in on Constantinople  Herakleios started a holy war between Persia  New military tactics were introduced  Made strategic retreats which allowed more soldiers to survive  In 2 years Persia was defeated  Herakleios restored cross to Jerusalem  The mother of God was the religious protector of the empire  Brought the byzantine empire back from disaster  One of the greatest ruler  Islamic Armies Invade from Arabia  Byzantines kept in contact with Arab tribes  Many frontier fort were set up against Arab raids  Arab merchants travelled to byzantine  In 634 Arabs had be united by monotheistic religions Islam  Approached byzantine empire to conquest the area  Herakleios did not pay attention to the Arabs and dismissed them  Started panicking  Arabs took Damascus  Many fights occurred, Herakleios died in 641  Arabs won all battles in 655  Arab armies wanted to wipe off Byzantine Empire  Byzantine negotiated a peace treaty instead  Creating Themes and Fighting Back  Constans II splits empire into themes, which reorganized the empire  Constans II divided the empire into themes  Caused decentralizations  Resulted in loss of control for emperor but reduced expenses  Made people fight hard for what was theirs  Constans son Constantine IV took power in 668  Faced many threats from Arabs  Used Greek Fire to gain control  Put Arabs into retreat  Technology and military reforms saved the empire  Justinian II came to power in 685  Declared war against Arabs 692  Cost him the throne  Married Khazar Khan’s daughter Theodora  Justinian died in 711, Emperor Leo II stabilized the empire in 717  Greek fire gave Byzantines control of the sea  Greek fire helped Byzantine’s lift Arab sieges  Alliance with Bulgarians opened a second front in the battle with the Arabs  Continued to fight but eventually came to a standstill with mutual acceptance  Neighbouring Civilization  Muslims accepted converts to the religion  Adapted byzantine bureaucratic system  Employed Byzantines to do work  Very tolerant of each other Unit 14 – The Iconoclasm Unit Questions What were the origins of the Iconoclasm and what was the rationale for its implementation?  Under Leo III and Leo V  Letter with Caliph citizen worship of icons  Jewish wizard also said the same thing  Many other religions like Muslims and Jews did the Sam  Icons were banned , provoked religious and political divisions within the empire How was the Iconoclasm implemented and who did it target the most?  Rock was thrown at icon of mother of god  Removed icons from palace  Removed them from public places and churches  Aimed at monks at priest and nuns  Iconophile How did the Iconoclasm change Byzantine Society?  Allowed government to reassert authority  Laid foundation for empire’s next great era  Made the empire get back to basics (The Ecloga)  Increased military success Unit Notes  The Iconoclast Context  Leo III first started Iconoclasm  Smashing of images  The cross was the only thing people could worship  Involved banning of icons (images of God and the saints)  Two separate iconoclasm (730-787 and 815-843)  Started by emperors Leo  Invasions questioned faith  Icons were banned , provoked religious and political divisions within the empire  Leo’s Logic  Leo iii removed Arab threat  Arabs continued to remain a holding in byzantine  Leo looked for religious explanation for hardships  Banned religious icons  Leo began to solidify his hold in the empire  Used Tagamata – a military force loyal to the emperor  Centralization measure  Rebel rising is Thessaloniki and Sicily  Crushed rebellions with religious authority  Forced Jews of the empire to be baptized  Banned icons because of the volcanoes eruption  726 was when iconoclasm started  730 was formally declared  Removed icons from principle churches and public places  New legal code (the ecloga)  Full of religiously influenced laws designed to get the empire back to basics  Iconoclasm brought soldiers together an secured power over Arab forces  Constantine V’s clampdown  Constantine V assumed power after Leo II death (father) in 741  Very strict about iconoclasm  Broke up powerful Opsician theme  Created the tagmata  A mobile military force loyal to the emperor that could deal with themes  Face opposition from Bulgarians  Plague hit Constantinople in 747  Council of Hiera  Allowed on the cross to be worshipped  Iconophile (people who favoured icons) were persecuted  Constantine V iconoclast polices generated opposition  Many icons survived the destruction  Irene and the Iconophile  Theodora and Irene were responsible for ending Iconoclasm  After death(775) the Iconophile made their move  Followed after by Leo IV was much less harsh on Iconophile  Wife was an Iconophile  took over power when husband died  considered marrying Charlemagne  New theme was created  Ruled as empress  Ruled ended because pope didn’t like women ruling  General Niceporus took her place in 802  The iconoclasts Strike Back  Niceporus raised taxes and put money into military  Was killed in a battle with Bulgarians  Niceporus’ son in law took over  Michael I reigned  Generals took power from him and put Leo V in power  Leo V saw Leo III as a role model  Used Leonean polices  Changed his sons name to Constantine  New era of iconoclasm  Excommunicated any citizen who refused Iconoclasm  Made peace with Bulgarians  Killed in Hagia Sophia  Theophilus took power  Lost many wars, used iconoclasm  Died, wife was left in power  Theodora used husband’s death to cancel Iconoclasm  Restored icons in empire  Son came to power, banished mother but kept icons  ICONCLASM was over for good  Iconoclast Society  Under iconoclasm, society was consolidated  Bagdad was seen as a center for higher learning  Economy and size of city’s were reduced but empire was still functioned  Bureaucracy remained the best of its day giving empire organizational strength  Core lands were maintained, was a naval power  Literacy was down  Christian became the binding force of the this poor and weaker empire  Iconoclasm – dark ages  Marked the beginning of an intellectual and cultural recovery  Caused deep division in the empire but the empire emerged from it in a stronger position and led it into a golden age. Unit 15 – Byzantine Renaissance, Macedonian Dynasty  the emperors during this era tried to emulate Constantine I  the division between Orthodox and Roman Catholic o because of Iconoclasm o competition for loyalty of Moravians and Bulgarians o second council of Nicaea o tax policies of Leo III  Kallinikos invented Greek Fire o Original formula was lost o Used only for defence o Victim of secrecy Unit Questions Address the factors that led to the recovery of the Byzantine Empire during the Macedonian Dynasty?  Restored icons, better treasury due to Theodora  Basil I got into power o repaired relationships with the romans o built up fleets and marine warship o made updates to Justinian Code and directed money into art and architecture What elements of the Hellenic past did Byzantine culture revive and how was Byzantine culture transported beyond the empire’s borders during this era?  Increase in land  Bureaucracy  Standing army  Architecture/literature  adoption of Classical Greece  Expansion in education  Taxation system  Increase in renaissance art Unit Notes  The Empire recovered  Empire emerged stronger from the iconoclasm  Was in a religious and political competition with Roman  Won the conversions of the Bulgarians, Serbians and Russians  Became a power house in economic power  Allowed stability and prosperity, the arts and education flourished  The Macedonian dynasty  Basil I began the dynasty  Restored icons, better treasury due to Theodora  Michael III’s uncle ruled  Through his leisure activities, the Macedonian dynasty was made through Basil I  Basil I got power through wrestling  Became a popular part of Michael III circle  Became co-emperor 866  Killed Michael III in sleep in 867  repaired relationships with the romans  built up fleets and marine warships  made updates to Justinian Code and directed money into art and architecture  son died, making Leo VI the heir  Leo VI marked a long struggle with Bulgaria  Face many foreign challenges  King Symeon took power at the empire’s expense  Defeated on the empire’s forces  Left  There was a coup and General Romans Lekapensos emerged as regent  Empire signed a treaty with son Peter  Military success continued with the conquest of Crete , Antioch and Aleppo  From 959-9976 ruled by Nikephoros II and Tzimiskes  Did not ruin work of the other previous emperors  Both fended off Russian invasion  Basil II came to power  Spent half of his time keeping his power  Trouble occurred in Balkans with Samuel, son of theme of Macedonia  Was like Symeon and was an ambitious ruler  Basil II dealt with internal challenges but then had to fight Samuel  Samuel took Peloponnese’s  Basil II split Samuel’s empire in half  Battle of Kleidion 1014  Empire won, took 140000 prisoners  Samuel died because of bad treatment of prisoners  Basil II conquered Samuel’s lands and became master of the south Balkans  The empire reborn  Empire was restored to its greatness  The dynasty built foundation for it  Constantine VIII took power  Death = end of the dynasty  Bulgarians were conquered,  Muslim empire was broken  Stability  Bureaucracy, standing army, taxation system  Renaissance art thrived  Byzantine renaissance was called the classical culture to serve Christian  Looked to Constantine I as a model  Education was very little and it was valued  Scholars made copies of important novels/works to preserve tradition  Renaissance did not meet the same requirement s as classical era  Missions to the Slavs  Russians converted to Orthodox  Empire missionaries were send to Moravia to offset the catholic influence  Cyril created an alphabet of Slavic language  Translated biblical texts into salvanic  Catholics won in Moravia  Slavonic translations of the bible still converted many  Michael III forced religion and won  Byzantium and the west  After the fall of Rome  Latin west and byzantine east had developed into two distinct cultures  Christians in the east, Catholics in the west  Arab forces united them Unit 16 – Crusaders and Catastrophe  Saladin captured Jerusalem from Crusades in 1197 o Happened during Byzantine’s naval attack on Cyprus  Liberalism was a positive contribution to the Byzantine Society by the Crusades Unit Questions What factors account for the Byzantine Empire’s rapid loss of territory after the end of the Macedonian Dynasty?  Weak leadership/ambitious neighbours  Byzantine was on the defence because of the crusades  Ottomans were very powerful  Overextended empire, diverse range of territories  Imperial state structure  Economy was poor  poor military/army How did Byzantines and Western Europeans perceive one another?  They were two different division from the same church  One wanted the other to convert  West wanted the power Why were relations between the Byzantines and Crusaders so often strained?  Deceits =lead to conflicts  4 crusade wanted riches of Constantinople o Capital was captured and sacked  Empire never recovered  West wanted more religious/political holdings in the Byzantine Empire Unit Notes  Crusaders and Catastrophe  Urban II (Pope) proclaimed the first crusade in 1095  Empire was plagued by weak leadership and challenge of ambitious neighbours  Wanted to exploit the riches of the empire  Turks and Normas would capture important cities  Christian crusaders presented a new dynamic for the empire  They battled Muslim Turks and Arabs all the way to the holy land  Tried to establith Christian rule over empire  1294 knights of the 4 cru
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