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9 - The Papacy.docx

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Simon Fraser University
HIST 288
Emily O' Brien

The Papacy:  a changing Institution over Time What we have seen this far ... • Final court of appeal • Date of Easter • Instructions to missionaries • Calls councils • Could call crusades • See Boniface’s obedience Question: How did he get his power and how did it evolve? I. The Claims to Papal Primacy: Origins and Development • Slow process based on circumstance and specific conflicts that began to define the authority of the Pope differently (1) Significance of Rome • Where the bishopric is • Added status • The capital of the empire • Place where Peter and Paul were martyred (the heads of the Church) – connected to fame and glory of martyrdom • The key city is not Jerusalem because it was destroyed in the 2 century (2) The Petrine Doctrine • Based on Matthew 16:18-19 − And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.” • Peter singled out and given authority • Was the first “bishop” of Rome • Clergy pointed to bible and call Peter the head of the apostles and having the rights of the bishop of Rome • Theory ofApostolic Succession – Bishop of Rome inherits authority and the plenitude of power that God gave to Peter (the keys of the kingdom) (3) Official Pronouncements of Popes – articulates the Pope’s authority • Gregory VII (1073-1085) – Dictatus Papae: Declares that the Pope cannot be judged by anybody. The first major expression of papal primacy and plenary of power. • Innocent III (1198-1216): Declares that the Pope is pre-eminent over all and the Vicar of Christ. Formerly there were vicars of Peter, but now the Pope is a “replacement” for Christ – a midway between God and man, so better than human beings. • Boniface VIII (1294-1303) − Clericis Laicos (1296): priority of Pope in the face of secular rulers − Unam Sanctam Ecclesiam (1302): the most powerful legal expression. The Pope is declared to be necessary for salvation. Salvation hinges on obedience to Him and his supreme power • Official pronouncements of Pope develop hierocratic theory of power − The pope is superior to secular powers and rulers. This develops slowly. (4) Claims to Primacy over Secular Rulers • Gelasius I (5 century): a pope who argued that there were two important powers but that spiritual matters were more important and higher. • The Donation of Constantine: stated that Constantine was so grateful for his conversion that he gave territory of the Western Empire to the Pope. th − This claim was made in the 8 century − Document was forged – claimed it was written in the 4 century to claim power over secular rulers • Gregory VII: claimed he could depose emperors • Innocent III: Pope’s pre-eminence over all. The Pope is the Sun and the King is the moon • Boniface VIII: more explicit terms of how secular power if subject to the church and have power to interfere in secular matters. Why was this theory so important? • Secular rulers were in control of appointments • Is pope is over secular rulers then they should be able to restore the power of the church. II. The Reality of Papal Primacy • In the first 500 years some Popes could exercise supreme power − For example, Gregory the Great (540-604). He sent missionaries, clergy were obedient, and you can see in the readings that he had authority over the growing church • The power was sporadic – how could they make such claims when secular rulers had so much power? • 900-1050 were the DarkAges for the Papacy − Coincided with the invasions of barbarians − Pope takes refuge in Rome under aristocrats who where appointing people and eventually the Pope. − Corruption, factions of nobles, 3 Popes in power at once, murdered popes etc. • 1050-1215 Papal power grows and reaches its height in the 13the century − Push back against lay investiture − Lay Investiture Controversy – Emperor Henry IV vs. Gregory VII o The result did not come until G
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