How did christianity interlock with the values, structures, demands and rituals of secular society? (i) the channels of christianity (a) the sacraments. Religious ceremony meant to represent outward sign of god"s invisible grace. Was originally used in secular context (for soldiers) but became bond between christians and god. In the past martyrdom and asceticism were ways to be closer to jesus. Came to agreement that sacraments strengthen that bond. Way to experience god and jesus more deeply very important because christianity is distinguished by a close, personal relationship with god so bond is extremely important. Theologians establish that sacraments are essential to salvation and only clergy can administer them. This is important because it means that you need the institutional church to get to heaven and gives the church and clergy a reason to exist. Excommunication means that someone is removed from the community of the church.