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HIST 338- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 71 pages long!)


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 338
Professor
Roxanne Panchasi
Study Guide
Final

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SFU
HIST 338
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
Chapter 5
5.1 Operation Torch
On November 7, 1942, on his way to celebrate the 19th anniversary of the abortive Beer
Hall Putsch, Hitler was shocked to learn that Allied fleets were entering the Strait of Gibraltar.
He ordered his staff to anticipate the fleet's direction, and due to Allied Double-Cross
misinformation, they mistakenly told Hitler that the fleet was headed for Malta.
When the Allied fleet arrived in North Africa on November 8, 1942 there were no
German troops rushing southward to confront them and the German air force was too far east to
be of any threat – the Germans were caught completely by surprise. Churchill and Roosevelt had
planned this joint US-British invasion of North Africa during the Arcadia Conference in
Washington between December 22, 1941 and January 14, 1942. Despite pressure by Stalin to
open a second front in the European continent, Roosevelt convinced Churchill that neither of
their forces was prepared for such an attack. It was agreed that they would attempt to secure
control of North Africa and the Mediterranean through a secret amphibious invasion of North
Africa. While Roosevelt's acceptance of this strategy was reluctant, Churchill was enthusiastic to
have the United States actively fighting against Hitler rather than focusing all their attention
against their Japanese foes in the Pacific.
American naval fleets snaked through 4,500 miles of the U-boat-infested Atlantic Ocean
and entered the Mediterranean through the Gibraltar Strait on November 7, 1942. The Germans
suspected the Allies were targeting Malta because for months Allied Double-Cross
misinformation had been playing on German fears of an Allied offensive in various places,
including Malta. Other false targets included Norway, France or the Middle East. But on
November 8, 1942, it was Vichy-held Morocco upon whose shores the US-British fleets landed.
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2
On November 10, Admiral Jean-François Darlan, a French long time Nazi supporter,
surrendered to the US on the condition that he remain the High Commissioner of France in North
and Northwest Africa. The US agreed to the terms and so began the political turbulence that
would accompany Allied combat imperatives in North Africa.
Also on November 10, Hitler responded to the surprise Allied invasion of North Africa
by occupying the rest of Vichy France, completely reneging on the terms presented to France
during the signing of the Armistice in June 1940. Hitler also immediately moved troops to
Tunisia in order to secure a German airbase there. Over the course of the African campaign the
Allies would invade Tunisia and push Rommel and his Afrika Corps out of Libya. German hopes
of acquiring the Suez Canal in Egypt and the pathway it offered to Middle Eastern oil were
shattered as the Allies steadily accumulated more supplies while Rommel received increasingly
less.
By November 14, 1942, the Allies had control of Casablanca and Algiers, fuelling French
fears over who would rule France after the war. Darlan was perceived as a Nazi-collaborator
while the monarchists were pushing for a pretender to the throne. Gaullists were hated by
Roosevelt, while most doubted the abilities of Giraud, a French politician who had been
imprisoned by Vichy since the armistice in June, 1940. Meanwhile, the native populations of
Morocco and Algeria were voicing their desires for their independence from France entirely.
These tensions quickly escalated to bloodshed with the assassination of Darlan by a young
monarchist on December 24, 1942. To the outrage of De Gaulle, Darlan’s post as High
Commissioner was passed on to Giraud.
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