Ch 13 - body defense mechanisms
1. Explain the difference between innate nonspecific and adaptive specific defense mechanisms.
Non-specific innate defences – those you are born with. Target any foreign invaders. Are physical &
Specific defences – immune responses that target specific invaders of body that manage to get by
the nonspecific defences. Adaptive – acquire them to defend that you have experienced
2. List seven types of nonspecific defense mechanisms. Explain how each type helps protect us against
Physical & chem barriers prevent foreign cells from entering body
Phagocytes engulf foreign cells
Inflammatory response of redness, warmth, swelling, pain destroys invader & helps repair foreign
Natural killer cells kill abnormal cells that are not recognized to belong to body
Complement system group of plasma proteins that assist other defense mech
Interferons interfere with viral rep
Fever raises body temp to become less hospitable to invaders
3. How does a natural killer cell kill its target cell?
Release chemicals that form pores in membranes of infected/tumour cells
4. What are interferons? What type of cell produces them? How do they help protect the body?
Proteins secreted by cells that are infected with virus
Protect by secreting chemicals that attract phagocytes & natural killer cells to kill infected cells
o Stimulate healthy cells to produce proteins that interfere with viral rep
5. What is the complement system? Explain how it acts directly and indirectly to protect the body against
Plasma proteins help body defense mechanisms
Activated by infection which begins a series of diff possible rxns
o Formation of protein complexes that create holes in bacterial cell walls
o Marking bacteria for destruction
o Stimulating cells to release histamine/serve as chemical attractors for phagocytes
6. Signs of inflammation include redness, warmth, swelling, and pain. What causes each of these
symptoms? How does inflammation help defend against infection?
Begins when injured tissues release chemicals that stimulate mast cells to release histamine
o Histamine causes blood vessels to dilate = bring more blood == redness & heat
o Increase heat increases metabolic rate = healing
o Histamine causes capillaries to become more permeable = fluid seeps into injured area
carrying defensive cells == swelling
o Pain hampers movement, allowing injured area to heal
7. What does an antigen-presenting cell do? How do other cells recognize the antigen-presenting cell as a
Engulfs invaders, digests, presents fragments of antigen on its surface attached to a self-marker
E.g. macrophages, activated B cells, dendritic cells
Recognized by antigen-MHC complex on their surface that allows them to have self-markers along
with antigen fragments
8. What cells are responsible for antibody-mediated immune responses? What are the targets of antibody-
mediated immune responses?
B-lymphocytes transform to form plasma cells that secrete antibodies. Targets of response =
antigens in blood/lymph
9. Describe an antibody. How do antibodies inactivate or eliminate antigens from the body?
Y shaped protein with antigen binding variable regions @ tips of Y that are specific to particular
1 Antigen-antibody complex marks a cell for destruction by activation complement system, attracting
phagocytes, neutralizing target, agglutinating target
10. What is responsible for cell-mediated immune responses? What are the targets of cell-mediated
Cytotoxic T cells
Targets: cellular infected cells, infected, cancerous cell
Kill targets by releasing proteins that form holes in the target cells
11. How does a natural killer cell differ from a cytotoxic T cell?
Natural killer cells = nonspecific defenders
Cytotoxic t cells = kill specific abnormal cells
12. Why does a secondary response occur more quickly than the primary response?
Primary response = recognition of antigen & production of B & T cells
Secondary response = memory cells remain in system & can be activated as soon as recognized
13. Differentiate between active and passive immunity
Active immunity = vaccinating with antigen-containing preparation
Passive immunity = injecting prepared antibodies for a specific pathogen
14. What are monoclonal antibodies? What are some medical uses for them?
Monoclonal antibodies = antibodies produced in lab from single hybrid B-cell
o Use for pregnancy tests, screen prostate cancer, diagnostic test for aids, hep, flu
15. What is an autoimmune disorder?
Immune response misdirected against body’s own tissues
No cures, only therapy can relieve symptoms
16. What is an allergy? What causes the symptoms?
Inappropriate immune response to an allergen that isn’t harmful
Symptoms = release of histamine from activated mast cells + inflammatory response
17. Indicate the correct statement:
a. An antibody is specific to one particular antigen.
b. Antibodies are held within the cell that produces them.
c. Antibodies are produced by macrophages.
d. Antibodies can be effective against viruses that are inside the host cell.
18. An antigen is a
a. cell that produces antibodies.
b. receptor on the surface of a lymphocyte that recognizes invaders.
c. memory cell that causes a quick response to an invader when it is encountered a second time.
d. large molecule on the surface of an invader that triggers an immune response.
19. Indicate the choice with the incorrect pairing of cell type and function.
a. Helper T cell—serves as “main switch” that activates both the cell-mediated immune responses and the
antibody mediated immune responses
b. Cytotoxic T cell—presents antigen to the helper T cell
c. Macrophage—roams the body looking for invaders, which are engulfed and digested when they are
d. Suppressor T cell—shuts off the immune response when the invader has been removed
20. When the doctors say they are looking for a suitable donor for a kidney transplant, they are looking for
a. whose tissues have self markers similar to those of the recipient.
b. who lacks antibodies to the recipient’s tissues.
c. who has suppressor T cells that will suppress the immune response against the donor kidney.
d. who lacks macrophages.
21. The piece of the antigen displayed on the surface of a macrophage
a. stimulates the suppressor T cells to begin dividing.
b. attracts other invaders to the cell, causing them to accumulate and making it easier to kill the invaders.
c. informs the other cells in the immune system of the exact nature of the antigen they should
be looking for (what the antigen “looks like”).
d. has no function in the immune response.
2 22. A cell that kills any unrecognized cell in the body and is part of the nonspecific body defenses is a(n)
NATURAL KILLER CELL .
23. HISTAMINE is a chemical released by mast cells and basophils that
produces most of the symptoms of an allergy.
24. Antibodies are produced by PLASMA CELLS.
25. MACROPHAGES (Activated Bcells or dendritic cells) are important antigen-presenting cells.
Ch 10 - the endocrine system
1. Given that hormones contact virtually all cells in the body, why are only certain cells affected by a
Cells affected by particular hormone = target cells
o Have receptors for hormone that is released
o Other cells don’t have receptor & cannot be affected by hormone
2. How do lipid-soluble (steroid) and water-soluble hormones differ in their mechanisms of action?
Can move through lipid bilayer into a cell where receptors reside
Steroid – combine with receptor inside cell & hormone receptor complex moves to DNA where it
activates genes that direct synthesis of specific proteins
Water-soluable – cannot pass through lipid bilayer. Hormone attaches to receptor on surface of cell
& binding activates molecule in cytmessenger (molecule inside cell) sets off an enzyme
cascade that affects cell activity
3. Compare negative and positive feedback mechanisms with regard to regulation of hormone secretion.
Provide an example
Negative feedback – outcome shuts down the process (E.g. pancreas & glucose uptake/storage)
Positive feedback – outcome stimulates process to continue (childbirth – posterior pituitary secretes
oxytocin – uterine contractions/more oxytocin == incr frequency + intensity of contractions)
4. How do the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland differ in size and relationship with the
Anterior pituitary = larger, directly connected to hypothalamus by circulatory connection
Posterior = much smaller, connected to hypothalamus by neurosecretory cells
5. List the hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary and their functions.
1. Growth hormone – stimulates growth of bones/muscles
2. Thyroid stimulating hormone – stimulates thyroid gland to produce hormones
3. Adrenocorticotropic – stimulates adrenal cortex to produce hormones
4. Prolactin – stimulates mammary glands to produce milk
5. Follicle stimulating hormone – promotes dev of egg cells & secretion of estrogen from ovaries
6. Luteinizing hormone – (females) causes ovulation & stimulates ovaries to secrete hormones
(males)promotes maturation of sperm & stimulate testes to produce hormones
6. List the hormones released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary and their functions.
1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – prompts kidneys to conserve water by decr urine output
2. Oxytocin – stimulates uterine contractions of childbirth/cause milk letdown
7. What are the effects of thyroid hormone?
Affects most cells of body – incr metabolism / heat prod
8. Describe the feedback system by which calcitonin and parathyroid hormone regulate levels of calcium in
High levels of calcium in blood = thyroid secretes calcitonin
o Promotes calcium storage by bones
Low levels of calcium = parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone
o Incr calcium levels in blood by stimulating bone destroying cells (osteoclasts)
Reabsorption of calcium by kidneys, absorption into bloodstream via GI tract
9. What are the major functions of the glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids secreted
by the adrenal cortex?
Glucocorticoids - Affect glucose homeostasis
Mineralcorticoids – affect mineral homeostasis & water balance
3 Gonadocorticoids (sex hormones) – minimal effects b/c secretion by testes far surpases adrenal
o Minimal effect in males, females = alleviate menopausal symptoms
10. What is the fight-or-flight response? Which hormones are critical in initiating this response?
Epinephrine + norepinephrine. Prompted by stress/danger
Increase in HR, resp rate, blood glucose, vasoconstriction (digestive), dilation (skeletal/cardiac)
11. What hormones are secreted by the pancreas? What are their functions?
Glucagon – increase blood glucose by stimulating liver to convert glycogen to glucose & forming
glucose from lactic acid + amino acids
Insulin – decr glucose by increasing transport of glucose into cells, inhibit breakdown of glycogen to
glucose & prevent conversion of amino acids to glucose
12. Explain the differences between diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus – group of diseases characterized by problems with insulin production/insulin
Diabetes insipdus – deficiency in ADH
13. What is the basic function of hormones secreted by the thymus gland?
Involved in maturation of WBC (t-lymphocytes)
14. What roles might melatonin play in the body? Reduces jet lag & promotes sleep
15. How do local signaling molecules differ from true hormones?
Local signaling molecules – act @ or near site of release within seconds/milliseconds
True hormones – travel in blood to relatively distant sites so effects take longer to materialize
16. Which of the following does not characterize the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
a. Releases oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
b. Circulatory connection to the hypothalamus
c. Larger of the two lobes
d. Secretes growth hormone and prolactin
17. A diet deficient in iodine may produce
b. Graves’ disease.
c. Cushing’s syndrome.
18. Which of the following does not characterize the adrenal medulla?
a. Inner region of the adrenal gland
b. Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
c. Secretes glucocorticoids
d. Secretes hormones involved in fight-or-flight response
19. Which of the following does not occur in a healthy person’s body after meals?
a. Secretion of insulin by the pancreas
b. Liver stops breakdown of glycogen
c. Secretion of glucagon by the pancreas
d. Muscle cells take up glucose
20. Overproduction of melatonin by the pineal gland may cause
a. seasonal affective disorder.
b. diabetes insipidus.
d. Addison’s disease.
21. The traditional dichotomy for hormone action postulates that LIPID-SOLUBLE hormones combine with
receptor molecules inside target cells, whereas WATER-SOLUBLE hormones bind to receptors on the
surface of target cells and activate second messengers.
22. Oversecretion of growth hormone in childhood causes GIGANTISM . Oversecretion in adulthood causes
23. The hormone CALCITONIN lowers blood levels of calcium; the hormone PARATHYROID HORMONE
increases blood levels of calcium.
24. In males, androgens are produced by the testes and the ADRENAL CORTEX.
25. The hormone INSULIN lowers glucose in the blood, whereas the hormone GLUCAGON increases glucose
in the blood.
4 Ch 17/17a = Reproductive systems and a little bit of info on STIs
1. Name the male and female gonads. What are the functions of these organs?
Male gonads – testes – produce sperm, testosterone
Female gonads – ovaries – produce eggs, estrogen, progesterone
2. How is the temperature maintained in the testes? Why is temperature control important?
Depends on a muscle that contracts to bring testes closer to body for warmth when scrotal temp is
low or relaxes when temp is high
Sperm develop better few degrees lower than body temp
3. Trace the path of sperm from their site of production to their release from the body, naming each tube
the sperm pass through.
Seminiferous tubules epididymis vas deferens urethra
4. Name the male accessory glands and give their functions.
Seminal vesicles – secrete most of the seminal fluids
Prostate gland – secretes watery alkaline fluid (activates sperm/raises vaginal pH)
Bulbourethral glands – secretes lubricating mucus
5. What is the function of the penis in reproduction? Describe the process by which the penis becomes
Deliver sperm to vagina
Neural activity dilates arterioles in penis, allows blood to enter spongy tissue and causes veins to
drain less blood
o Change in blood distribution allows blood to accumulate in spongy tissue = erection
6. Name and describe the functions of the three regions of a sperm cell.
Head – contains DNA, covered by acrosome (enzyme rich cap helps egg penetration)
Midpiece – contains mitochondria to power tail for locomotion
Tail – locomotion to the egg
7. List the hormones from the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the testes that are important
in the control of sperm production. Explain the interactions between these hormones.
Testosterone – prod in testes, necessary for maturation of sperm
GnRH – prod in hypothalamus, stimulates anterior pituitary to release LH/FSH
LH – produced in anterior pituitary, stimulates testes to produce testosterone
FSH – prod in anterior pituitary, stimulates sperm production (With testosterone)
8. What are the two main layers in the wall of the uterus?
Endometrium (inner) – lining that builds up each month in prep for pregnancy
o Estrogen causes cell division = thicken endometrium
o Progesterone increase glandular activity to nourish embryo
Myometrium (outer) – smooth muscle. Allow uterus to get larger as fetus grows & provides force to
push baby out
9. List the major structures of the female reproductive system and give their functions.
Ovaries – produce eggs
Oviduct – path for egg/early embryo to travel to uterus
Uterus – site for implantation of embryo & development of fetus
Vagina – birth canal
10. What is an ectopic pregnancy? Why is it dangerous to the mother’s health?
Embryo implants in another place other than uterus
Most common = tubal pregnancy – embryo implants in oviduct
Oviduct cannot expand, may rupture causing hemorrhage
11. Describe the structure of female breasts. What is their function?
Breasts contain milk glands that produce milk for off spring
Milk glands connected to ducts that lead to outside environment @ nipple
Most of breast fatty tissue
5 12. Describe the ovarian cycle. Include in your description primary oocytes, primary follicles, mature
Graafian follicles, and the
Start with primary follicle (primary oocyte surrounded by layer of follicle cells)
Primary follicle matures, cells divide + produce estrogen which enters blood stream and
accumulates in fluid within follicle
Accumulation of fluid causes layer of follicle cells to split, fluid continues to accumulate into newly
Estrogen in fluid causes first meiotic division in primary oocyte secondary oocyte
Estrogen containing fluid continues to accumulate as follicle grows
Mature graafian follicle forms – contains 2ndary oocyte located at edge & surrounded by follicle
cells & a large fluid filled cavity
AT OVULATION: mature follicle pops, releasing egg
o Follicle cells remaining in ovary transformed into endocrine structure (CORPUS LUTEUM)
which secretes estrogen/progesterone
o No pregnancy? Corpus luteum degenerates in 2 weeks
13. Describe the interplay of hormones from the anterior pituitary and from the ovaries that is responsible
for the menstrual
Day 1 menstrual cycle = first day of menstrual flow
o Estrogen & progesterone levels low, new follicle begins to develop
o FSH from anterior stimulates estrogen production by developing follicle