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HSCI 403 (1)

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Health Sciences
HSCI 403
Michal Fedeles

HSCI 403 READINGS NOTES CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS SPRAWL? Vermont Forum on Sprawl definition of sprawl = dispersed, auto-dependent development outside of compact urban and village centers, along highways, and in rural countryside. Sprawl takes on a variety of meanings: cheaply and quickly built neighbourhoods at the edge of metropolitan areas, architecturally monotonous residential subdivisions, ugly feeder roads lined with strip malls, lifestyles that center around car trips. Sprawl refers to the way land is used, the way people travel from place to place, and even the way a place feels. In sprawling metropolitan areas, the city expands outward over large geographic areas, sometimes in a leapfrog pattern. Different lands uses residential, commercial, office, recreational, and so on tend to be separated from each other. Distances between things are large, which makes walking and biking impractical, and the low density makes mass transit uneconomical. There is a heavy reliance on the automobile Heavy reliance on the automobile for transportation results in more air pollution, which contributes to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. More driving also means less physical activity, contributing to a national epidemic of overweight and associated diseases. More time on the roads means a greater risk of collisions with other cars and with pedestrians, with associated injuries and deaths. Even mental health and the network of social interactions and trust known as social capital may be affected. Urban form refers to the amalgamation of individual elements of the towns and cities in which we live, work, play, and travel: the schools, houses, parking lots, shopping malls, gas stations, post offices, houses of worship, streets, parks, and stadiums, with which we are all familiar. o Partly determined by natural features A widely accepted approach to measuring sprawl was proposed by Ewing, Pendall, and Chen. 8 These researchers aimed to incorporate both land use and transportation in their definition and, accordingly, identified four categories for measurement: the strength or vibrancy of activity centers and downtown areas; accessibility of the street network; residential density; and the mix of homes, jobs, and services at the neighborhood level. o these might be defined as compactness (density), diversity (the mixture of uses over an area), sense of place (strength or vibrancy of activity centers in a region), and connectivity (street network accessibility, meaning how easy it is to get from point to point on the street system). Land Use: Density and Land Use Mix
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