HSCI 216- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 75 pages long!)

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HSCI 216
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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HSCI 216
DAY 1
May 10, 2017
The Human Body
Is the human body perfect?
- How do like our brain?
- How about our communication skills?
- How do you like walking on two feet? Athletic abilities?
- Our ability to process on omnivorous diet?
o Is this the perfect diet?
o Is this good for our gut? Digestion
- Do you enjoy depth perception?
o Are our eyes perfect? no (blind spot)
Overhead: If our brain was perfect why do we have ____
- ADHD
- Anxiety
- Depression
- Schizophrenia
Why do our bodies “fail” so often?
2 answers
a) Traditional health sciences and biology
o Proximate answers
Mechanism
Ex: mechanism to depression
b) Ecology and evolution
o Ultimate answers
Origin and function
This course will focus on ultimate answers offered by the field of
- Evolutionary Medicine
What is Evolutionary Medicine?
- EM incorporates the theoretical frameworks of ecology and evolution to the study of
health and disease
- EM’s formalization could be traced to Williams & Nesse’s 1991 article: “The Dawn of
Darwinian Medicine”
How are ecology and evolution relevant to health and disease?
What is human ecology?
- Study of humans as a mammalian species that attempt to achieve its basic biological
goals while it interact with out ecological context
- Both affected by our ecological context
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- Have the power to affect our ecological context
What are humans’ basic biological goals?
- Survival and reproduction
Why are survival and reproduction basic biological goals?
- Because differences in survival and reproduction lead to evolution
Evolution is a process and occurs in several different ways
What is evolution?
- Evolution is the change in genetic makeup of a population between cohorts
How does it occur?
- Natural selection
- Genetic drift
- Gene flow
Natural Selection (NS) key questions/learning objectives
- What is it? How does it occur?
- Did it (does it) have a role in shaping our bodies and the mechanisms that control it?
- Does it lead to perfection?
- Can understanding NS help us in any way to improve health outcomes
Natural selection is a process
Why does this process take place?
- Individuals within a species vary
- Some of that variation is linked to differences in survival and reproduction
- Some of that variation is linked to genetic differences
Why does this process take place?
- Differential reproduction consequences of differential conditions to survive and
reproduce in a ecological context
Using Pac-Man to explain the process of NS
- Variation in survivourship
- Pac-Man only wants Red dots NOT Black or Yellow
- Black and yellow can reproduce
- Variation in reproduction more yellow than black litters are different some have 6
or 8, others 1
- Next generation of Pac-dots, more yellow because they had bigger litters
What kinds of traits does NS work on?
Heritabilties vary from 0 to 1
0 is very low heritability (not different from the resemblance between people chosen at random)
1 is very high heritability
- Height 0.75
- Age at first birth: 0.11
- Age at menopause: 0.36
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