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Terms for Final Preparation

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Political Science
POL 348
Douglas Ross

Terms for Final 'technique' per Jacques Ellul: Jacques Ellul was a social theorist who deeply thought and analyzed the transformations of our society into an increasingly technocratic society. In the Technological Society (1964), Ellul lays out a firm foundation to understand the concept of technology and how it may shape human lives in various aspects. He refers to a term ‘mass man’ who, he defines, has been removed from his individualist self to become a member of the mass society. Ellus uses the word ‘technique’ to describe a totality of methods developed by cultural creators, having a great efficiency in mediating nearly every aspect of human existence. Reinhard Heydrich: He is also referred as ‘the Hangman’. He was known as one of the cruellest and most brutal murderers in Nazi Germany. He murdered thousands of Jews and other enemies of the Reich. After being discharged from the navy, he joined the Nazi group as a member of the SA. Created and built the SD, a Nazi intelligence agency and created files on all Jews in Germany. Eliminating Jews, ‘the eternal subhumans’ was the ultimate goal. He further involved in the execution of the Final Solution. “Operation Reinhard” was given as the name of the process of exploitation of all Jews. He had become notorious one of the most heinous Nazi war criminals of the Holocaust. the Wannsee conference: In 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, Himmler’s second command of the SS, organized the Wannsee Conference with 15 top Nazi Bureaucrats to coordinate the Final Solution in which the Nazi would attempt to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe, an estimated 11 million people. Instead of emigration, they agreed on a further possible solution which was the deportation of the Jews to the East, particularly to Ghettos in occupied Poland, and then onto the soon opened death camps at Belzec, Sobibor and Tremblinka. And from there, Jews would be eliminated by natural causes, such as death by combination of hard work and starvation. the ‘Final Solution’: The Final Solution was a project conducted under the Nazi Germany and the main aim of it was to eliminate all the Jews from Europe; yet, it remains uncertain when the Nazi leadership decided to implement it. This was a big project for the Nazi Germany and included various measures against Jews such as, generating anti-Jewish legislations, boycotts, ‘Aryanization’ and massive street violence, as in the Kristallnacht pogroms. In implementation of the ‘Final Solution’, German authorities killed up to six million Jews by poison gas, shooting and other means. the security dilemma (by Jervis): Security dilemma simply refers to a condition in the international politics where an increase in a state’s security decreases the security of others. According to Jervis, the dilemma would operate much more strongly if states do not pretend like they understand it , because they don’t due to different interpretations. An attempt only to secure status quo may alarm others not because they perceive an aggression but because they may fear of being attacked in the first place. States do not understand that trying to increase one’s security can actually decrease security dilemma. Thus, it is very likely that 2 states which support the status quo but do not understand the security dilemma will end up, if not in a war, then at least in a relationship of higher conflict than is required by the objective situation. The belief that an increase in military strength always leads to an increase in security is often linked to the belief that the only route to security is through military strength. the ‘triangular’ cell model: This was the model used by the secret organization in Algiers, as we have seen in the movie “the Battle of Algiers”. It is a tactic used by the resistance organizations where each member knows only your superior and two inferiors. Members never associate with anyone else. That way you cannot implicate more than 3 people. This is highly significant as it makes it very difficult for other to destroy the organization. Counterinsurgency response to this is targeting the highest possible member in the structure within a short period of time. Offensive Realism: State leaders care more about overturning the status quo and seeking permanent hegemonic advantage rather than preserving power as defensive realists. According to this, survival requires aggressive behaviour. Great powers behave aggressively because they seek more power in order to maximize their odds of survival. Trusting others is useless and unnecessary. Great powers want to maximize relative gains compared with the other great powers in the system. Short of complete hegemony, great powers will not end trying to build up relative power because 1)it is difficult to measure 2)it is never clear how much is enough 3)economic and scientific progress is difficult to predict 4)states are always better off with more rather than less power. 4 misperceptions that cause war: The misperceptions can manifest itself in four different ways: in a leader’s image of himself; in a leader’s view of his adversary’s character; in a leader’s view of his adversary’s intentions toward himself; in a leader’s view of his adversary’s capabilities and power. 1) Each leader confidently expects victory after a brief and triumphant campaign. The assumption of a powerful emotional momentum of its own becomes a cause for war. 2) Distorted views of the adversary’s character also help to precipitate conflict. For instance, hatred toward a nation could easily affect your decision. 3) when a leader on the brink of a war believes that hid adversary will attack hi, the chances of war are very high. When both leaders share this perception about each other’s intent, war becomes a virtual certainty. 4) this is the quintessential cause of war. However, it is not the actual distribution of power that precipitates war; it is the way in which leader thinks that power is distributed. the causes of imperialism in liberal theory: John A. Hobson and Norman Angell developed a liberal explanation for imperial behaviour which they generally thought was bad, and structurally unnecessary to the achievement of prosperity in the major countries of Europe. Imperialism in this view was caused by 'underconsumption': the monopolists and oligopolists who owned and controlled the biggest industrial firms systematically underpaid their employees--who then could not buy all the goods put onto national markets. Unsaleable 'surplus production' would then cause falling prices and profits. Capital export possibilities were then created through the seizure of colonies as a means to provide a 'vent' for 'excess capital' accumulation by the wealthy in the metropole. The export of capital was then 'protected' via the exertion of political control over the colony. In the liberal perspective the scramble for colonies would inevitably lead to war among the imperial states. But even without such wars the creation and sustainment of colonies was not profitable for the metropolitan states. Colonies were never profitable for metropolitian societies as a whole (a speculation more or less verified by mid-20th century historians who examined the total societal costs of Empire for the European colonial powers). Colonial rule and investment in colonies was profitable only for a small group of 'special interests' who may have had disproportionate political influence. Imperialism was also bad because it encouraged the creation of more monopolies--more concentrations of economic power in various industries and because it fed the f
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