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PSYC 100 Exam Review Notes

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PSYC 100

PSYC 100 Exam ReviewChapter 1 The Science of PsychologyWhat is PsycScience of behaviourApplication of findings of psyc research to solution of problemsDefinition of Psychology Scientific study of behaviour and mental processWhy Study BehaviourExplain why people do what they doFirst learn to categorize different behavioursSecond discover causes of behaviour events responsibleFields of PsychologySome are scientists practitioners and some are bothMost employed by colleges and universitiesPhysiological PsycStudies physiological basis of behaviourStudy what can be observed in nonhuman animalsoMEMORY SENSORY PROCESS MOTIVATION SLEEPoCan determine a lot about drug abuseComparative PsycStudy of the behaviour of members of a variety of species in an attempt to explain behaviour in terms of evolutionary adaption to the environmentInherited behaviour patternsMATING PREDATION AGGRESIONBehaviour AnalysisStudies effects of the environment on behaviourInterested in LEARNING and MOTIVATIONPleasant outcomesrepeatedUnpleasant consequencesless likelyResearch applied settings schools homes etcBehaviour GeneticsStudies role of genetics in behaviourBlueprint we inherit from rents different then anyone elsesNo two people will act exactly alikeOne of the major contributions of behaviour genetics to the study of drug abuse that has been the development of strains of laboratory animalsCognitive PsycStudies complex behaviours and mental processes functions by studying the brain mechanisms that are responsibleComplex behaviours perception attention learning memoryOccur in response to environmental eventsExplanations involve inferred mental process ex AttentionCognitive NeuroscienceAttempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the brain mechanisms that are responsible for themSimilar to cognitive psychologists but more in depthA primary technique is to study brains that have been damaged stroke disease etcDevelopmental PsycStudies the change in behavioural perceptual and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experienceMainly for childrenHelped understand how drugs have taken over peopleSocial PsycStudy the effects people have on each others behaviourPerception attitudes and opinions interpersonal relationships group dynamics etcPersonality PsycStudy of individual differences in temperament and patterns of behaviourLook for casual events in a persons history genetic and environmentalEvolutionary PsycSeeks to explain cognitive social and personality aspects of psychology by looking at their adaptive significance during the evolution of modern speciesComparative psychologists and behavioural geneticists importantUse the theory of evolutionNatural selection guiding principleTask is to trace development of such differences and explore how their adaptive advantages might explain the behaviours of modern humansCrossCultural PsycStudies the effects of culture on behaviourAncestors of people lived in different environments that presentedClinical PsycStudy of psychological disorders and problems of adjustmentMost are practitioners who try to help people solve their problemsAlso do research to evaluate and improve methods of psychotherapyPhilosophical Roots of PsychologyPrimitive philosophy is called animismAnimism is the belief that all animals and moving objects possess spirits providing their motive forcePsyc as a science must be based on the assumption that behaviour is strictly subject to physical lawsRene Descartes has been called the father of modern philosophyHe advocated a sober impersonal investigation of natural phenomena using sensory experienceReflex An automatic response to a stimulus such as the blink reflex to the unexpected approach of an object to the eyeDualism the philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matterModel a relatively simple system that works on known principles and is able to do at least some of the things that a more complex system can doEmpiricism the philosophical view that all knowledge is obtained through the sensesMaterialism a philosophical belief that reality can be known only though an understanding of the physical world of which the mind is a part ofBiological Roots of PsychologyDoctrine of specific nerve energies Johannes Mullers observation that different nerve fibres convey specific information from one part of the body to the brain or from the brain to one part of the bodyExperimental Ablation the removal of a portion of the brain of an experimental animal for the purpose of studying the functions of that regionMuller was a forceful advocate of applying experimental procedures to the study of psychologyPierre Flourens provided experimental evidence for the implications of Mullers doctrine of specific nerve energiesApplications in Education and TherapyDescartes believed that the mind had free will the ability to make decisions for which it was morally responsible
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