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PSYC 102- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 49 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 102
Professor
A.George Alder
Study Guide
Final

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SFU
PSYC 102
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psychology 102 - Key Words!
Ch.1
Nativism - philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn!
Philosophical empiricism- the view that all knowledge is acquired through experiences!
Phrenology - A defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from
memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain!
Physiology - study of biological processes, especially in the human body!
Stimulus - sensory input from the environment!
Reaction time - amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus!
Consciousness - Person’s subjective experiences of the world and the mind!
Structuralism - analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind!
Introspection - subjective observation of one’s own experiences!
Functionalism - study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to
their environment!
Natural Selection - the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more
likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations!
Hysteria - temporary loss of cognitive or motor function, usually as a result of emotionally
upsetting experiences!
Unconscious - part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences
conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions!
Psychoanalytic theory - approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental
processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviour!
Psychoanalysis- Approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious
awareness to better understand psychological disorders!
Humanistic Psychology- An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the
positive potential of human beings!
Behaviourism- Approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the
scientific study of objectively observable behaviour!
Response- Action or psychological change elicited by a stimulus!
Reinforcement- the consequences of a behaviour determine whether it will be more or less
likely to occur again!
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Illusions- Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience diers
from objective reality!
Gestalt psychology- psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the
whole rather than the sum of the parts!
Cognitive psychology- scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought,
memory, and reasoning!
Ch.2!
Empiricism- the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation !
Scientific method- a procedure for finding the truth by using empirical evidence!
Theory- Hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon !
Hypothesis- Falsifiable prediction made by a theory!
Empirical Method- set of rules and techniques for observation !
Operational Definition- description of a property in concrete measurable terms!
Validity- goodness with which a concrete event that defines a property !
Frequency distribution- Graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number
of times each measurement was made!
Normal Distribution- mathematically define distribution in which frequency of measurements
is highest in the middle and decreases symmetrically in both directions!
Mode- value of the most frequently observed measurement !
Mean- average value of all the measurements!
Median- value that is in the middle; that is, greater than or equal to half the measurements and
less than or equal to half the measurements!
Range- value of the largest measurement in a frequently distribution minus the value of the
smallest measurement !
Standard Deviation- Statistic that describes the average dierence between the
measurements in a frequency distribution and the mean of the distribution!
Variable- Property whose value can vary across individuals or over time!
Correlation- two variables are said “ to be correlated” when variations in the value of one
variable are synchronized with variations in the value of the other!
Correlation Coecient- mathematical measure of both the direction and strength of a
correlation, which is symbolized by the letter r!
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