Psychology 102 - Key Words!
Nativism - philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn!
Philosophical empiricism- the view that all knowledge is acquired through experiences!
Phrenology - A defunct theory that speciﬁc mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from
memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in speciﬁc regions of the brain!
Physiology - study of biological processes, especially in the human body!
Stimulus - sensory input from the environment!
Reaction time - amount of time taken to respond to a speciﬁc stimulus!
Consciousness - Person’s subjective experiences of the world and the mind!
Structuralism - analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind!
Introspection - subjective observation of one’s own experiences!
Functionalism - study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to
Natural Selection - the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more
likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations!
Hysteria - temporary loss of cognitive or motor function, usually as a result of emotionally
Unconscious - part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but inﬂuences
conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions!
Psychoanalytic theory - approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental
processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviour!
Psychoanalysis- Approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious
awareness to better understand psychological disorders!
Humanistic Psychology- An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the
positive potential of human beings!
Behaviourism- Approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the
scientiﬁc study of objectively observable behaviour!
Response- Action or psychological change elicited by a stimulus!
Reinforcement- the consequences of a behaviour determine whether it will be more or less
likely to occur again!