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Psych 102: Personality.doc

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PSYC 102
Brooke Seal

Psychology 102: Intro to Psychology Part II Textbook Notes Chapter 14: Personality W HAT IS PERSONALITY ? Defn: “the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations. Three Characteristics to the thoughts, feelings, and actions (behaviours) that reflect in one’s personality: • Components of identity that distinguish from another person • Caused primarily by internal vs. environmental factors • Meaningfully fashioned/ fit-together Historical Roots of [Personality] -Theophrastus (4 century BC; Aristotle’s pupil; compiled lists of Athenian society personality types during Alexandra) -e.g: The Unseasonable Man—the penurious man, the garrulous man, the inopportune man  T HE P SYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE -looks for causes of behaviour in dynamic interplay of inner forces that often conflict with one another; focuses on unconscious determinants of behaviour -Influences: • Darwin • Mesmer: -used magnetism; eventually became hypnosis • Charcot: -french neurologist; worked with patients that had physical symptoms with no apparent cause, therefore…psychological? (i.e. if someone had hysteria, they linked it to being from a history of abuse) • Breuer: -The Case of Anna O (seemingly unexplained physical symptoms: Headaches, paralysis, periods of over-excitement, visual disturbances, loss of sensation, multiple personalities, speech difficulties, hallucinations, inability to drink); re: inability to drink: she said “I saw the dog drink from the glass…DISGUSTING!” -Breuer’s Catharsis: symptoms are a result of emotion, and if the emotion is released, symptoms will disappear; symptoms arise from what’s occurring in the unconscious mind 1 F REUD ’S P SYCHOANALYTIC THEORY -Freud (1856-1939) -studied under famous french neurologist, Jean Charcot, who treated patients who suffered from conversion hysteria (disorder). -helping treating these patients convinced Freud that the symptoms were related to painful memories and feelings that had been repressed; that an unconscious part of the mind exerts great influences on behaviour -over time, psychoanalysis became a theory on personality, an approach to studying the mind, and a method for treating psychological disorders Psychic Energy and Mental Events -Freud, inspired by the hydraulic models & their physics, considered that personality could also be an energy system: psychic rather than physical Defn: instinctual drives that power the mind and constantly press for either direct or indirect release -Mental events can be conscious, preconscious, or unconscious: “Freud’s Iceberg” • Conscious: mental events that one is presently aware of (thoughts, perceptions) • Preconscious: contains memories, thoughts, feelings, and images, unaware of in the moment, but can be recalled to the conscious (memories & stored knowledge) • Unconscious: dreams, slips of the tongue, some disguised behaviour (violent motives, immoral urges, selfish needs, fears, irrational wishes, unacceptable sexual desires, shameful experiences) 2 The Structure of Personality (Freud) Freud organized personality into 3 separate, interacting structures: the id, ego, and superego: • id: exists completely within the unconscious mind; the innermost core of the personality, present at birth; the source of psychic energy; functions irrationally & apart from reality; operates by the pleasure principle (demanding immediate gratification & avoiding pain: “want…take”); strives to satisfy basic survival, sexual and aggressive drives • Ego: functions primarily consciously; operates by the reality principle (tests reality to decide when/how the id can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs); satisfies the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain; mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and the ego • Superego: source of the internalized values & ideals; the moral arm; strives to control the instincts of id; quest of perfection; moralistic goals override realistic ones; provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations Psychosexual stages of Development (Freud) Stages Physical focus Psychological theme Adult characteristic Oral stage: Birth-18 Mouth, sucking, Dependency Dependence (on mos. swallowing something in mouth*/ independence** Anal stage: 18 mos.- Anus (elimination) Self-control Uptight vs impulsive 3.5yrs. Phallic Stage: 3.5 – Penis Morality & sexual Amoral vs. very rigid 6yrs. identification morals Latency Stage: 6 yrs. Period of relative – puberty calm Genital Stage: post- genitals Maturity and creation/ Balance of love & puberty enhancement of life work *something in mouth: cigarettes, alcohol, food **hostile & aggressive -oedipus conflict (occurred in all little boys: were attracted to their mothers, but afraid they’d be castrated if their father found out) -electric conflict (occurred in all little girls: were attracted to their fathers & jealous that they don’t get to have a penis when their dad’s do) Conflict, Anxiety, and Defence -defence mechanisms: a resort of the protective ego that seeks to reduce anxiety by denying or distorting reality; operate unconsciously; a result of progressing through the psychosexual stages of development ineffectively (according to Freud) -repression: ego’s attempt to ‘keep a lid on the id’; prevents anxiety-arousing memories, feelings, and impulses from entering consciousness -regression: -reaction formation: unconscious unacceptable impulses switched to their opposites -projection: when ppl see a trait in themselves in someone else, and project it as the other person’s problem only 3 -rationalization: offer’s self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions -displacement: a delay in reaction (i.e. if a man is mad at his boss, he acts appropriately toward boss but goes home and abuses wife/kids with that anger) -sublimation: repressed unacceptable impulses are channelled into socially-desirable behaviours to mask the underlying impulses [See Table 14.1 (pg. 547): Psychoanalytic Ego Defence Mechanisms] E VALUATING P SYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Freud’s Legacy: Neoanalytic Object Relations Approaches -neoanalysts: psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking & who developed their own theories; they believed that Freud did not give social and cultural factors enough consideration in the development and dynamics of personality (i.e. he emphasized infantile sexuality too much & emphasized too much of the effect of childhood events on adult personality) -in contrast to Freud’s view of people as savage animals caged by the bars of civilization, people like Alfred Adler (1870-1937) believed in the inherent sociability of humans: that humans are motivated by social interest and the advancement of others’ welfare; that humans’ motive is striving for superiority to overcome the inferiority complex -Object Relations theorists: focus on the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experiences with caregivers…often turns into self-fulfilling prophecies; outgrowth theory = attachment theory (John Bowlby; Ch. 12) “People who have difficulties forming and maintaining intimate relationships tend to mentally represent themselves and others in negative ways, expecting painful interaction and attributing malevolence or rejection to others” (Kernberg, 1984; Nigg et al., 1992). -Types of Attachment styles: secure, avoidant, anxious-ambivalent Treatment How to access the unconscious mind: hypnosis, free-association, dream analysis, people’s beliefs/ habits/ symptoms, slip of the tongue or pen  T HE H UMANISTIC P ERSPECTIVE -embrace a positive view that affirms the inherent dignity and goodness of the human spirit; emphasis on the central role of conscious experience and the individual’s creative potential and inborn striving for self-actualization—the total realization of one’s human perspective; focus on an individual’s subjective experiences -Influences: -Carl Rogers (1902-1987)—Self Theory -Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)—Hierarchy of Needs, developed from monkey experiments (wire monkey moms with milk vs. cloth monkey moms (comfort)) 4 A BRAHAM M ASLOW S H IERARCHY OF N EEDS -begins @ the based with physiological needs that must first be satisfied -higher-level safety needs become active -then psychological needs become active -problems occur when any of the pieces are missing or unmet Self-actualization needs: -need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential ESTEEM N EEDS: -need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others B ELONGINGNESS AND L OVE NEEDS : -need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation SAFETY N EEDS: -need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable P HYSIOLOGICAL N EEDS -need to satisfy hunger & thirst C ARL R OGER ’SS ELF THEORY -Carl Rogers (1902-1987) -believed that our behaviour is not a reaction to unconscious conflicts, but a response to our immediate conscious experience of self & environment; there are inner forces that can be trusted to direct one to self-actualization Basic Human Needs Possible Responses (of Results parents) Need for self-actualizatUnconditional positive regarSelf-actualization Need for positive regardConditional positive regard Self-discrepancies The Self -an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself; guides our perceptions and directs our behaviour (once self is developed) -Self-consistency: an absence of conflict among self-perceptions -congruency: consistency between self-perceptions and experience -both of these needed to maintain our concept of self -any experience inconsistent with self-concept= threat & anxiety & disorganization of self-concept The Need for Positive Regard -the need for acceptance, sympathy, and love from others: essential for healthy development. -unconditional positive regard: ideally received from parents; communicates that the child is inherently worthy of love; independent of how the child behaves. -need for positive self-regard: feeling good about ourselves 5 -conditions of worth: dictates when we approve or disapprove of ourselves; sprouts from a past that has a lack of unconditional positive regard which teaches that ppl are only worthy of regard when they meet a certain standard Fully Functioning Persons -fully functioning persons: people who achieve self-actualization; those who don’t hid behind masks or adopt artificial roles; those who sense inner freedom, self-determination, and choice in the direction of their growth; those who have no fear in behaving spontaneously, freely and creatively; those who are free of conditions of worth and therefore self-accepting of inner & outer experiences; true to themselves R ESEARCH ON THE SELF Two forefront topics (by Rogers): • The development of self-esteem and its effects on behaviour • The roles played by self-enhancement and self-consistency motives Self-Esteem -refers to how positively or negativesly we feel about ourselves; important aspect in personal well-behing, happiness, and adjustment -high self-esteem: less susceptibility to social pressure, fewer interpersonal problems, happier, achieve more & at higher levels, more capable of forming satisfying love relationships (there is danger to an inflated sense of self-esteem, however) -poor self-esteem: more prone to psychological problems (anxiety, depression), to physical illness, and to poor social relationships and underachievement -conditions that foster high self-esteem: when parents communicate unconditional acceptance and love, establish clear behaviour guidelines, reinforce compliance while giving freedom to make choices and opinions Self-Verification and Self-Enhancement Motives -self verification: when people are motivated to preserve their self-concept by maintaining self-consistency and congruence -self-enhancement: the need to regard oneself positively; the strong and pervasive tendancy to gain and preserve a positive self-image (self-serving biases in self-perception, even though they contribute to one’s psychological well-being) Culture, Gender, and the Self -individualistic cultures (North America, Northern Europe) place an emphasis on independence and personal attainment -collectivist cultures (Africa, Asia, South America) emphasize connectedness b/w people and group achievements; social embeddedness -gender schemas: organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for males and females (gender-role socialization) -Western culture (Males): tend to prize attributes related to achievement, emotional strength, athleticism, and self-sufficiency 6 -Western culture (Females): tend to prize interpersonal competencies, kindness and helpfulness to others (social connectedness)  T RAIT AND BIOLOGICAL P ERSPECTIVES -goals of trait theorists are to describe the basic classes of behaviour that define personality; to devise ways of measuring individual differences in personality traits, and to use these measures to understand and predict a person’s behaviour; to reduce thousands of descriptors to a smaller set of “basic” dimensions -trait: defn: a characteristic pattern of behaviour -Two major approaches to define personality building blocks: • propose traits on the basis of intuition or a theory of personality • use the statistical tool of factor analysis to identify clusters of specific behaviours that are correlated with each other/ appear to underlie personality descriptions C ATTELL ’SS IXTEEN P ERSONALITY F ACTORS [See Figure 14.11 (pg. 558)] -16 basic behaviour clusters, or factors, or personality dimensions -Cattell developed the “16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)” -some examples: reserved/ outgoing, less or more intelligent, affected by feelings/ emotionally stable, submissive/ dominant, serious/ happy-go-l
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