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Ch 12 Development over lifespan.doc

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PSYC 102
Sherri Atwood

Ch 12 Development over lifespanDevelopment psychology focuses on biological physical psychological and behavioral processes4 issuesNature vs nurtureCritical and sensitive periodsCritical age range where certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normallySensitive optimal age range for certain experiences but if those experiences occur another time normal dev is possibleContinuity vs discontinuity developmentStability vs change Does our characteristics stay remain consistent as we ageResearch methodsCrosssectional design Compare pple at different age groupsBut cohorts different enviro from different age groups grown up in the 1920s vs 2012Longitudinal design Repeatedly test the same cohort as they grow older focus sample of 10year olds and follow as they ageBut time consuming pple may die earlydrop out of studySequential design combine crosssectional and longitudinalRepeatedly test several age groups as they grow determine if they follow a similar developmental patternBut time consuming and costlyParental development3 stages of physical growth Germinal stage first 2 weeks of developmentZygotethrough cell division it becomes cells that attach to moms uterus 1014 days after conceptionEmbryonic stage from end of secondeighth week after conceptionEmbryo2 lifesupport structures placenta and umbilical cord contain blood vessels that carry nutrients and O to 2embryo and waste products back to mombodily organs and systems formFetal stage till birthFetusMuscles become stronger at 24 weeks eyes open 28 weeks fetus attains age of viability can survive outside womb in case of premature birthGenetics and sex determinationrd23 pair of chromosomes determine the babys sex XXfemale XYmaleTestis determining factor TDF gene in Y chromosome that triggers male sexual developmentOnce testis form it secretes sex hormone androgen that triggers more male organsEnvironmental influencesTeratogens enviro agents that cause abnormal parental developmentplacenta prevents dangerous substances from reaching baby but some chemicals and disease may pass eg rubella german measlescause blindness heart defects mental retardationeg STD sexually transmitted diseasecause brain damage blind deafeg FAS fetal alcohol syndromecause abnormal face small brain low IQ motor impairs social skillslongterm memory as fetuses learning capabilities for soundsaudio stimuli heard during fetal developmentInfancy and childhoodPreferential looking procedure study infants visual preferencesShowed babies 2 or more stimuli at the same time and observed their eyes to see how long they looked at each stimuluspreferred complex patterns like human faces instead of simple solid coloursBabies have poor visual cuesthey can see thicker lines over thinner onesNewborns can perceive offcentered auditory voices sounded opposite one ear and tactile touching cheek and odors can especially orient with familiar stimuli in their enviromoms face voice smellNewborn learning infants learn rapidlywithin hours after birth they can identify familiar faces of their mother from that of a female strangerlooks longer at moms faceEnjoy novel stimuli visual habituation procedure same stimulus presented repeatedly until babys looking time declines when a novel stimulus is presented infants look longer at novel than the familiar stimulusAuditory habituation procedure study infant memory would turn towards repeated sound eventually stopped turning cause they mightve tried to avoid it and turned toward new sound indicating that they can discriminate between sounds and they can store long term memorystill turned toward stimuli within 24 hoursNewborns can learn through CC and OC and imitationCC after touching babys forehead CS they gave him milk UCSlater after touching forehead they started to pucker lips UCR if milk wasnt given they were upset expecting milkOC know how to make things happen they sucked on plastic nipple to activate tape recorder of moms voice
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