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PSYC 102 Study Guide - Umbilical Cord, Basal Metabolic Rate, Visual Field

6 pages106 viewsSpring 2014

Course Code
PSYC 102
Sherri Atwood

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Ch 12 Development over lifespan
Development psychology focuses on: biological, physical, psychological, and behavioral processes
4 issues:
°Nature vs nurture
°Critical and sensitive periods
Critical: age range where certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally
Sensitive: optimal age range for certain experiences, but if those experiences occur another time, normal dev is
°Continuity vs discontinuity development
°Stability vs change: Does our characteristics stay remain consistent as we age?
Research methods
°Cross-sectional design:
Compare pple at different age groups
But cohorts: different enviro from different age groups (grown up in the 1920s vs 2012)
°Longitudinal design:
Repeatedly test the same cohort as they grow older (focus sample of 10year olds and follow as they age)
But time consuming, pple may die early/drop out of study
°Sequential design: combine cross-sectional and longitudinal
Repeatedly test several age groups as they grow; determine if they follow a similar developmental pattern
But time consuming and costly
Parental development
3 stages of physical growth:
°Germinal stage: first 2 weeks of development
Zygote…through cell division, it becomes cells that attach to mom’s uterus 10-14 days after conception
°Embryonic stage: from end of second-eighth week after conception
Embryo…2 life-support structures: placenta and umbilical cord (contain blood vessels that carry nutrients and O2 to
embryo, and waste products back to mom)…bodily organs and systems form
°Fetal stage: till birth
Fetus…Muscles become stronger, at 24 weeks eyes open, 28 weeks fetus attains age of viability (can survive
outside womb in case of premature birth)
Genetics and sex determination
°23rd pair of chromosomes determine the baby’s sex (XX=female, XY=male)
°Testis determining factor (TDF): gene in Y chromosome that triggers male sexual development
Once testis form, it secretes sex hormone, androgen that triggers more male organs
Environmental influences
°Teratogens: enviro agents that cause abnormal parental development
placenta prevents dangerous substances from reaching baby but some chemicals and disease may pass
eg: rubella (german measles)—cause blindness, heart defects, mental retardation
eg: STD (sexually transmitted disease)—cause brain damage, blind, deaf...
eg: FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome)—cause abnormal face, small brain, low IQ, motor impairs, social skills
°long-term memory as fetuses; learning capabilities (for sounds/audio stimuli heard during fetal development)
Infancy and childhood
Preferential looking procedure: study infants’ visual preferences
°Showed babies 2 or more stimuli at the same time and observed their eyes to see how long they looked at each
stimulus—preferred complex patterns like human faces instead of simple solid colours
°Babies have poor visual cues—they can see thicker lines over thinner ones
°Newborns can perceive off-centered auditory (voices sounded opposite one ear) and tactile (touching cheek) and odors
(can especially orient with familiar stimuli in their enviro—mom’s face, voice, smell...)
Newborn learning: infants learn rapidly…within hours after birth, they can identify familiar faces of their mother from that of a
female stranger-looks longer at mom’s face
°Enjoy novel stimuli; visual habituation procedure: same stimulus presented repeatedly until baby’s looking time
declines; when a novel stimulus is presented, infants look longer at novel than the familiar stimulus
Auditory habituation procedure: study infant memory; would turn towards repeated sound; eventually stopped turning
cause they might’ve tried to avoid it and turned toward new sound indicating that they can discriminate between sounds,
and they can store long term memory—still turned toward stimuli within 24 hours
Newborns can learn through CC and OC and imitation
°CC: after touching baby’s forehead (CS), they gave him milk (UCS)later, after touching forehead, they started to
pucker lips (UCR) (if milk wasn’t given, they were upset, expecting milk)
°OC: know how to ‘make things happen’: they sucked on plastic nipple to activate tape recorder of mom’s voice
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°Imitate: facial expressions…innate ability
Sensory-perceptual development in newborns increase rapidly
°Visual field expands to adult size by 6 months improving dev function from 20/800 at birth20/100 by 6 monthsgrows
at age 4
°By 3/4 months, pattern perception is organized according to certain Gestalt principles (closure, proximity…)
°not all perceptual developmental functions show improvement with age: U-shaped function for sound localization—
newborns perceive sound at birth, disappears when they turn 2 months..returns at 4/5 months
decline in improvement may be from lack of practice, interest is captured from visual targets, temporary inhibition as
cortical structures mature and take control of subcortically driven reflexes
°auditory pattern perception is advanced in young infants: can detect tiny changes in adult speech sounds and good at
detecting changes in phonemes not used in parents’ language—lost (not entirely though) at 1 years old as they start to
speak in their native language; “use it or lose it”
°can also perceive music like adults: will look longer to hear a pitch change in tones that adults find pleasant than to hear
a pitch sound that is unpleasant; can discriminate melodies too
°sensory perceptual processes are exercised in the uterus, and operate at some level at birth (even visual)
physical, brain, and motor development:
°maturation: programmed biological process that governs our growth, bodies and motor skills develop
cephalocaudal principle: development to proceed in head-to-foot direction (eg: head of fetus is large and
disproportional cause physical growth concentrates first on the head)
proximodistal principle: development begins along innermost parts of body, continues toward outermost parts
(eg: fetus’ arms develop before hands & fingers; at birth, can control shoulders but not arms/hands)
brain develops the most out of the organs: birth 25% mature6months 50% mature5yrold 90% mature
1st brain area of maturity: breathing, heartbeatlast area of maturity: frontal cortex; cognition
°motor development: through stages (chest up, roll, sit, stand, walk, run)
reflexes: automatic behavior elicited by specific stimuli
motor skills follow a U-shaped developmental function
eg: newborn’s stepping reflex drops out after 1 or 2 months, and reappears once 1 years old
as legs grew heavier, the slower developing leg muscles weren’t able to lift them
enviro and cultural influences: physical & motor development from genetic (maturation) & experience
experience: eg: diets—chronic malnutrition affect growth and brain development…death
°physical touch helps restore normal growth; massaging helps weight gain and neurological dev
°motor skills—U-shaped function, by practicing with child (eg: get him back on his feet)
depends culturally—N.american babies walk at age 2, Kenya babies walk at 10 months
°biology sets limits on enviro influence: best nutrition won’t guarantee growing very tall
°enviro influences can be powerful: nurturing enviro provide physical, sensory-motor, and psych growth
°biological & enviro factors interact: enriched enviro enhance brain dev//brain dev helps us learn from enviro
cognitive development:
°study how they arrived at their answers and how they think…cognitive dev from maturation and experience
°brain develops schemas—organized pattern of thought and action (eg: sucking reflex—infants have a schema that the
world is meant to be sucking)
°cognitive dev occurs as we acquire new schemas and become more complex
°2 processes involved: assimilation and accommodation
Assimilation: new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas
Eg: as she gets a new toy, she will suck it because her schema =the world is meant for sucking
Eg: she calls a dog as “doggie”, so she calls a horse “doggie” cause ‘doggie’= has 4 legs and a tail
Accommodation: new experiences cause existing schemas to change; find out their schemas are wrong
eg: find out she can’t put a large object for sucking, or it tastes bad
eg: she finds out horses can’t fetch or bark
every time a schema is modified, it creates a balance/equilibrium b/w enviro & child’s understanding
°Jean Piaget’s stage model (4)
Sensorimotor stage: birth-age 2: understand world through sensory experiences and physical/motor interactions
with objects; reflexes are their earliest schemas that guide thought and action..but as sensory and motor
capabilities increase, they begin banging spoons and think they can make things happen
Object permanence: think objects still exist even if it’s hidden/no longer seen; Occur at 8 months
lang start at age 1;end of sensorimotor stage, use more words to represent objects, needs, actions
preoperational stage: age 2: represent world symbolically through words and mental images, but don’t understand
mental operations or rules (conservation—which glass has more juice…etc)
egocentrism: difficulty in viewing the world from someone’s perspective
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