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Some Midterm Review

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Cathy Mc Farland

Psyc 201W Midterm Review 1 Chapter 2 Where to Start Hypotheses and predictions Who we study: A note on terminology Sources of ideas Library research Anatomy of a research article 1. Discuss how a hypothesis differs from a prediction. 2. Describe the different sources of ideas for research, including common sense, observation, theories, past research, and practical problems. 3. Identify the two functions of a theory. 4. Summarize the fundamentals of conducting library research in psychology. 5. Summarize the information included in the abstract, introduction, method, results, and discussion sections of research articles. Abstract summarizes the hypothesis, the procedure, and overall results in no more than 120 words Introduction section describes how past research and theories connect to the current research issue and outlines the expected results Method section subsections: an overview of the design, description of subjects (characteristics, recruitment), and procedure details Results section findings are usually presented in three ways: narrative form, statistical language, and in the form of tables and graphs Discussion section a critique of the investigators own research; how the results compare to previous results; suggest possible applications and future research topics in the area Hypothesis a statement that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular situation Prediction a statement that makes an assertion concerning what will occur in a particular research investigation Theory a systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon Psyc 201W Midterm Review 2 Chapter 3 Ethics Milgrams obedience experiment Federal regulations and the IRB The Belmont Report APA Ethics Code Assessment of risks and benefits Research with human participants Informed consent Ethics and animal research The importance of debriefing Risks and benefits revisited Alternatives to deception Misrepresentation: Fraud and Justice and participant selection plagiarism Researcher commitments 1. Summarize Milgrams obedience experiment. 2. Discuss the three ethical principles outlined in the Belmont Report: beneficence, autonomy, and justice. 3. List the information contained in an informed consent form. 4. Discuss potential problems obtaining informed consent. 5. Describe the purpose of debriefing research participants. 6. Describe the function of an Institutional Review Board. 7. Contrast the categories of risk involved in research activities: exempt, minimal risk, and greater than minimal risk. 8. Summarize the ethical principles in the APA ethics code concerning research with human participants. 9. Summarize the ethical principles in the APA ethics code concerning research with animals. 10. Discuss how potential risks and benefits of research are evaluated. 11. Discuss the ethical issue surrounding misrepresentation of research findings. Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research the 3 basic ethical principles are beneficence, respect for persons (autonomy), and justice. The associated applications of these principles are assessment of risks and benefits, informed consent, and selection of subjects. Beneficence principle that research should have beneficial effects while minimizing any harmful effects Autonomy principle that individuals in research investigations are capable of making a decision of whether to participate Justice principle that all individuals and groups should have fair and equal access to the benefits of research participation as well as potential risks of research participation Risk-benefit analysis in terms of research ethics, you must calculate potential risks and benefits; potential risks may be physical harm (e.g., drugs, alcohol, lack of sleep), stress (physical or psychological), or loss of privacy or confidentiality. Informed consent in research ethics, the principle that participants in an experiment be informed in advance of all aspects of the research that might influence their decision to participate Psyc 201W Midterm Review 3 Confidentiality treatment of information that an individual has disclosed in a relationship of trust, with the expectation that this information will not be divulged to others without permission Debriefing explanation of the purposes of the research that is given to participants following their participation in the research Deception active misrepresentation of information Role-playing a procedure for studying behaviour in which individuals are asked to indicate how they would respond to a given situation rather than being observed in action in the situation Simulation studies simulation of a real-world situation; can be used to examine conflict between competing individuals, driving behaviour using driving simulators, etc. Still raises ethical issues. Honest experiments participants agree to have their behaviour studied while knowing what the researchers hope to accomplish Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct the Ethics Code 5 general principles relate to beneficence, responsibility, integrity, justice, and respect for the rights and dignity of others. Ten ethical standards address specific issues concerning the conduct of psychologists in teaching, research, therapy, counselling, testing, etc. Most concerned with Ethical Standard 8: Research and Publication. 8.1 Institutional Approval 8.6 Offering inducements for 8.2 Informed consent to research participation research 8.7 Deception in research 8.3 Informed consent for 8.8 Debriefing recording voices and 8.9 Humane care and use of images in research animals in research 8.4 Client/patient, student, 8.10 Reporting research and subordinate results research participants 8.11 Plagiarism 8.5 Dispensing with informed consent for research Exempt research research that involves only anonymous questionnaires, surveys, and educational tests is exempt, as is naturalistic observation in public places when there is no threat to anonymity. Requires no informed consent but there must be an institutional mechanism formulated by the IRB to determine that it is exempt. Fraud fabrication of data Institutional Review Board (IRB) an ethics review committee established to review research proposals. The IRB is composed of scientists, nonscientists, and legal experts. Minimal risk research the risks of harm to participants are no greater than risks encountered in daily life or in routine physical/psychological tests (e.g., ECG, EEG, moderate exercise by healthy individuals, research on behaviour) Plagiarism misrepresenting anothers work as your own Psyc 201W Midterm Review 4
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