Psyc 201W Midterm Review 1
Chapter 2 Where to Start
Hypotheses and predictions
Who we study: A note on terminology
Sources of ideas
Anatomy of a research article
1. Discuss how a hypothesis differs from a prediction.
2. Describe the different sources of ideas for research, including common sense,
observation, theories, past research, and practical problems.
3. Identify the two functions of a theory.
4. Summarize the fundamentals of conducting library research in psychology.
5. Summarize the information included in the abstract, introduction, method,
results, and discussion sections of research articles.
Abstract summarizes the hypothesis, the procedure, and overall results in no more
than 120 words
Introduction section describes how past research and theories connect to the
current research issue and outlines the expected results
Method section subsections: an overview of the design, description of subjects
(characteristics, recruitment), and procedure details
Results section findings are usually presented in three ways: narrative form,
statistical language, and in the form of tables and graphs
Discussion section a critique of the investigators own research; how the results
compare to previous results; suggest possible applications and future research topics
in the area
Hypothesis a statement that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular
Prediction a statement that makes an assertion concerning what will occur in a
particular research investigation
Theory a systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon Psyc 201W Midterm Review 2
Chapter 3 Ethics
Milgrams obedience experiment Federal regulations and the IRB
The Belmont Report APA Ethics Code
Assessment of risks and benefits Research with human participants
Informed consent Ethics and animal research
The importance of debriefing Risks and benefits revisited
Alternatives to deception Misrepresentation: Fraud and
Justice and participant selection plagiarism
1. Summarize Milgrams obedience experiment.
2. Discuss the three ethical principles outlined in the Belmont Report:
beneficence, autonomy, and justice.
3. List the information contained in an informed consent form.
4. Discuss potential problems obtaining informed consent.
5. Describe the purpose of debriefing research participants.
6. Describe the function of an Institutional Review Board.
7. Contrast the categories of risk involved in research activities: exempt,
minimal risk, and greater than minimal risk.
8. Summarize the ethical principles in the APA ethics code concerning research
with human participants.
9. Summarize the ethical principles in the APA ethics code concerning research
10. Discuss how potential risks and benefits of research are evaluated.
11. Discuss the ethical issue surrounding misrepresentation of research findings.
Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of
Human Subjects of Research the 3 basic ethical principles are beneficence,
respect for persons (autonomy), and justice. The associated applications of these
principles are assessment of risks and benefits, informed consent, and selection of
Beneficence principle that research should have beneficial effects while
minimizing any harmful effects
Autonomy principle that individuals in research investigations are capable
of making a decision of whether to participate
Justice principle that all individuals and groups should have fair and equal
access to the benefits of research participation as well as potential risks of
Risk-benefit analysis in terms of research ethics, you must calculate
potential risks and benefits; potential risks may be physical harm (e.g., drugs,
alcohol, lack of sleep), stress (physical or psychological), or loss of privacy or
Informed consent in research ethics, the principle that participants in an
experiment be informed in advance of all aspects of the research that might
influence their decision to participate Psyc 201W Midterm Review 3
Confidentiality treatment of information that an individual has disclosed in a
relationship of trust, with the expectation that this information will not be divulged to
others without permission
Debriefing explanation of the purposes of the research that is given to participants
following their participation in the research
Deception active misrepresentation of information
Role-playing a procedure for studying behaviour in which individuals are
asked to indicate how they would respond to a given situation rather than
being observed in action in the situation
Simulation studies simulation of a real-world situation; can be used to
examine conflict between competing individuals, driving behaviour using
driving simulators, etc. Still raises ethical issues.
Honest experiments participants agree to have their behaviour studied
while knowing what the researchers hope to accomplish
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct the Ethics Code 5
general principles relate to beneficence, responsibility, integrity, justice, and respect
for the rights and dignity of others. Ten ethical standards address specific issues
concerning the conduct of psychologists in teaching, research, therapy, counselling,
testing, etc. Most concerned with Ethical Standard 8: Research and Publication.
8.1 Institutional Approval 8.6 Offering inducements for
8.2 Informed consent to research participation
research 8.7 Deception in research
8.3 Informed consent for 8.8 Debriefing
recording voices and 8.9 Humane care and use of
images in research animals in research
8.4 Client/patient, student, 8.10 Reporting research
and subordinate results
research participants 8.11 Plagiarism
8.5 Dispensing with
informed consent for
Exempt research research that involves only anonymous questionnaires, surveys,
and educational tests is exempt, as is naturalistic observation in public places when
there is no threat to anonymity. Requires no informed consent but there must be an
institutional mechanism formulated by the IRB to determine that it is exempt.
Fraud fabrication of data
Institutional Review Board (IRB) an ethics review committee established to
review research proposals. The IRB is composed of scientists, nonscientists, and legal
Minimal risk research the risks of harm to participants are no greater than risks
encountered in daily life or in routine physical/psychological tests (e.g., ECG, EEG,
moderate exercise by healthy individuals, research on behaviour)
Plagiarism misrepresenting anothers work as your own Psyc 201W Midterm Review 4