PSYC 221 Study Guide - Final Guide: Corpus Callosum, Axon Terminal, Neocortex

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PSYC 221 FINAL EXAM REVIEW
CHAPTER 2; p. 52-74
Dissociation – a disruption of one component of mental functioning but no impairment of another
Double Dissociation – two patients show opposite patterns of disruption and preserved function
- Further evidence suggests that the cognitive processes are anatomically and functionally
separate
Association – disruption of one of the processes always accompanies a disruption in the other process
Cognitive neuropsychology – analysis of those handicaps in human cognitive function that result from
brain injury
Basic Neurology (p. 54)
Neuron – cell specialized in receiving and sending neural impulses
- The basic building block of the nervous system
- Process: neuron releases a chemical substance, a neurotransmitter, from small buttons or sacs in
the axon terminals this chemical fits into the dendrites of the next neuron and creates an effect
Parts of a Neuron
-Dendrites – input structure: takes in the message being passed along a neural tract
oSmall branchlike fingers
-Soma – where the biological activity of the cell is
regulated
oCell body; the central portion of each neuron
-Axon terminals – output structure: place where the
neural impulse ends in the neuron itself
oAlso called terminal arborizations
Receptor Cells – react to the physical stimulus
- Trigger a pattern of firing down a sequence of
sensory neurons
Sensory Neurons – pass the message along into the spinal
cord
- Two different routes to the spinal cord
oMessage quickly loops through the spinal
cord and goes back out into the muscles
(reflex; Figure 2-6 on the right)
oSecond route involves only the central
nervous system, the spinal cord and the
brain
Synapses – region where the axon terminals of one neuron
and the dendrites of another neuron come together
- Extremely small physical gaps between the neurons
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Document Summary

Dissociation a disruption of one component of mental functioning but no impairment of another. Double dissociation two patients show opposite patterns of disruption and preserved function. Further evidence suggests that the cognitive processes are anatomically and functionally separate. Association disruption of one of the processes always accompanies a disruption in the other process. Cognitive neuropsychology analysis of those handicaps in human cognitive function that result from brain injury. Neuron cell specialized in receiving and sending neural impulses. The basic building block of the nervous system. Process: neuron releases a chemical substance, a neurotransmitter, from small buttons or sacs in the axon terminals this chemical fits into the dendrites of the next neuron and creates an effect. Dendrites input structure: takes in the message being passed along a neural tract: small branchlike fingers. Soma where the biological activity of the cell is regulated: cell body; the central portion of each neuron.

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