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PSYC 221 Study Guide - Final Guide: Corpus Callosum, Axon Terminal, Neocortex


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 221
Professor
Thomas Spalek
Study Guide
Final

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PSYC 221 FINAL EXAM REVIEW
CHAPTER 2; p. 52-74
Dissociation – a disruption of one component of mental functioning but no impairment of another
Double Dissociation – two patients show opposite patterns of disruption and preserved function
- Further evidence suggests that the cognitive processes are anatomically and functionally
separate
Association – disruption of one of the processes always accompanies a disruption in the other process
Cognitive neuropsychology – analysis of those handicaps in human cognitive function that result from
brain injury
Basic Neurology (p. 54)
Neuron – cell specialized in receiving and sending neural impulses
- The basic building block of the nervous system
- Process: neuron releases a chemical substance, a neurotransmitter, from small buttons or sacs in
the axon terminals this chemical fits into the dendrites of the next neuron and creates an effect
Parts of a Neuron
-Dendrites – input structure: takes in the message being passed along a neural tract
oSmall branchlike fingers
-Soma – where the biological activity of the cell is
regulated
oCell body; the central portion of each neuron
-Axon terminals – output structure: place where the
neural impulse ends in the neuron itself
oAlso called terminal arborizations
Receptor Cells – react to the physical stimulus
- Trigger a pattern of firing down a sequence of
sensory neurons
Sensory Neurons – pass the message along into the spinal
cord
- Two different routes to the spinal cord
oMessage quickly loops through the spinal
cord and goes back out into the muscles
(reflex; Figure 2-6 on the right)
oSecond route involves only the central
nervous system, the spinal cord and the
brain
Synapses – region where the axon terminals of one neuron
and the dendrites of another neuron come together
- Extremely small physical gaps between the neurons
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