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Chapter 6-9

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PSYC 221
Thomas Spalek

PSYC 221 MT 2 REVIEW CHAPTER 6 Long Term Memory - Declarative / Explicit: can be retrieved and reflected on consciously o Episodic: a person’s autobiographical memory, personally experienced and remembered events of a lifetime (p. 211) o Semantic: general world knowledge, knowledge that relates to concepts and ideas to one another, including how to express those concepts in language; mental encyclopedia (p. 211) - Nondeclarative / Implicit: knowledge that can influence thought and behavior without any necessary involvement of conscious awareness Mnemonic Devices: active, strategic learning device or method; a rehearsal strategy - Method of Loci: the to-be-remembered items are associated with a location; retrieval consists of a mental walk through of the locations - Peg word mnemonic: prememorized set of words serves as a sequence of mental “pegs” onto which the remembered words can be “hung” o One is bun, two is shoe… The Three Mnemonic Principles (what it does to improve memory) 1. Provides a structure for learning information. 2. Helps form a durable and distinctive record of the material in memory. 3. Guides you through retrieval by providing effective cues. Ebbinghaus’ Research - Only used himself as a subject in his study - Inventor of CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) - Relearning task: learned, set aside for a period of time, and then relearned to the same criteria of accuracy - Savings score: primary measure of learning; the reduction in the number of trials (or time) necessary for relearning, compared to the original learning Current Position on episodic long term memory 1. People invent meaning. 2. The participants in memory experiments are active. (they are trying to remember) 3. Results based on meaningless stimuli are themselves meaningless when we attempt to understand how people learn and remember . (lab results do not apply to real world situations) Metacognition: knowledge about one’s own cognitive system and its functioning - Metamemory: knowledge about one’s own memory, how it works, and how it fails to work - Two important issues o Importance of self-monitoring and awareness, or metacognitive awareness o Control and self-regulation or, what you do with your metacognitive awareness Storing information in episodic memory Von Restorff Effect (Isolation Effect) - Effect: improved memory for one piece of information that is made distinct or different from the information around it (ex. 15 photos, 1 nude) Storage Effects (p. 221) - Rehearsal: a deliberate recycling or practicing of the contents of the short-term store o This maintains information, prevents it from getting lost o The longer an item is held in short-term memory by rehearsal, the greater the probability that the rehearsal will also store the item in long-term memory o Primacy Effect: higher recall of the earlier items, entirely dependent on rehearsal o Two kinds of rehearsal  Maintenance rehearsal (Type I): Low-level, repetitive kind of information recycling; once you stop rehearsing the information, it leaves no permanent record in memory  Elaborative rehearsal (Type II): uses the meaning of information to help store and remember it - Organization: the structuring or restructuring of information as it is being stored in memory o Free recall: memory task in which items may be recalled in any order o Chunking: or clustering; memory for a long list can be described in a hierarchical structure, with a code high in the structure serving as the label o Subjective organization: organization developed by the subject for structuring and remembering a list of items without experimenter-supplied categories - Visual Imagery: the mental picturing of a stimulus that affects later recall and recognition o Paired-Associate Learning: a task in which pairs of items are to be learned so that upon presentation of the stimulus, the response term can be recalled o Dual Coding Hypothesis: words that denote concrete objects can be encoded into memory twice, once as a word and once as a visual image Storage… - Encoding specificity: each item is encoded into a richer memory representation, one that includes any extra information about the item that was present during encoding - Retrieval Cue: a useful prompt or reminder for the information needed to be retrieved Retrieving Episodic Information… - Decay Theory: the older a memory trace is, the more likely that it has been forgotten\ - Interference - Retrieval Failure o Forgetting: loss from memory o Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) Phenomenon: when one is momentarily unable to recall some shred of information that they know is stored somewhere in long-term memory; usually have access to partial information about the target word such as length, what letter it starts with, etc. o Accessibility: the degree to which information can be retrieved from memory Amnesia: loss of memory or memory abilities caused by brain damage or disease (p. 244) - Retrograde Amnesia: loss of memory for events that occurred before the brain injury - Anterograde Amnesia: disruption of memory for events that occur after the brain injury, usually disruption in acquiring new long-term memories Dissociation: disruption in one component of the cognitive system but no impairment of another Double Dissociation: A and B are functionally independent and are implemented in different physical regions of the brain Association: A and B are so completely associated that damage to either process will disrupt the other CHAPTER 7 Semantic Memory: contains general world knowledge, language and other conceptual information Collins and Quillian Model (p. 257-258) Network: an interrelated set of concepts or interrelated body of knowledge - Activation is presumed to spread from concept to concept (node) along these connecting pathways Node: concepts; a point or location in the semantic space Pathway: the connecting link between two concepts or nodes Spreading Activation: the mental activity of accessing and retrieving information from the network - Analogous to the spread of neural excitation in the brain Proposition: a relationship between two concepts - Basic unit of meaning, expressing a single idea - “bird” “robin” Property Statement: simple statement in which the relationship is being expressed - X has the features of Y; Z is an X - A robin has wings Isa: the superordinate pathway that indicates that an item is a member of the category Intersection: the location where activation from two separate nodes meet Smith’s Feature Comparison Model (p. 260) Semantic Features: feature list; a collection of lists - Properties or characteristics stored in the mental representation of some concept Defining Feature: property or feature of a concept that is essential to the meaning of that concept Characteristic Feature: features that are common but are not essential to the meaning of the concept Sentence verification task: a task in which participants indicate true or false to simple sentences - An S (subject) is a P (predicate). - The closer the concepts are, the less time it should take the activate Cognitive Economy: the principle that information is not stored redundantly in semantic memory if it can be inferred from already stored information Inheritance: the principle that members of a category inherit or possess the properties of the category itself Typicality: the degree to which items are viewed as typical; the central tendency of a category Typicality Effect: the result that typical members of a category
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