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PSYCHOLOGY 250 - Final Exam Review.docx

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Psychology
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PSYC 250
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Sherri Atwood

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Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood 1) The Development of Language - Ch. 7: Language & Communication (Pgs. 253-294) Key Terms: - Definitions from textbook. Language: A communication system in which words and their written symbols combine in various, regulated ways to produce an infinite number of messages. Communicative Language: The ability to convey thoughts, feelings and intentions in an organized, culturally patterned way that sustains and regulates human interactions. Productive Language: The production of speech. Receptive Language: Understanding the speech of others. Phonology: The system of sounds that a particular language uses. Phoneme: Any of the basic units of a language’s phonetic system; phonemes are the smallest sound units that affect meaning. Semantics: The study of word meanings and word combinations, as in phrases, clauses and sentences. Grammar: The structure of a language and is made up of morphology and syntax. Morphology: The study of a language’s smallest units of meaning, or morphemes. Morpheme: Any of a language’s smallest units of meaning, such as a prefix, a suffix or a root word. Syntax: The subdivision of grammar that prescribes how words are to be combined into phrases, clauses and sentences. Pragmatics: A set of rules that specifies appropriate language for particular social contexts. Language-Acquisition Device (LAD): Noam Chomsky’s proposed mental structure in the human nervous system that incorporates an innate concept of language. Critical Period: A specific period in children’s development when they are sensitive to a particular environmental stimulus that does not have the same effect on them when encountered before or after this period. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Language-Acquisition Support System (LASS): According to Jerome Bruner, a collection of strategies and tactics than environmental influences – initially, a child’s parents or primary caregivers – provide the language-learning child. Infant-Directed Speech or Child-Directed Speech: A simplified style of speech parents use with young children, in which sentences are short, simple, and often repetitive: the speaker enunciated especially clearly, slowly, and in a higher-pitched voice and often ends with a rising intonation. This style of speech is called motherese. Expansion: A technique adults use in speaking to young children in which they imitate and expand or add to a child’s statement. Recast: A technique adults use in speaking to young children in which they render a child’s incomplete in a more complex grammatical form. Proto-Declarative: A gesture that either an infant or a young child may use to get someone to do something she or he wants. Joint Visual Attention: The ability to follow another person’s attentional focus or gaze of direction. Categorical Speech Perception: The tendency to perceive as the same a range of sounds belonging to the same phonetic group. Cooing: A very young infant’s production of vowel-like sounds. Babbling: An infant’s production of strings of consonant-vowel combinations. Patterned Speech: A form of speech in which the child utters strings of phonemes that sound very much like real speech but are not. Naming Explosion: The rapid increase in vocabulary that the child typically shows at about ½ years of age. Overextension: The use, by a young child, of a single word to cover many different things. Underextension: The use, by a young child, of a single word in a restricted and individualistic way. Holophrase: A single word that appears to represent a complete thought. Telegraphic Speech: Two-word utterances that include only the words that are essential to convey the speaker’s intent. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Overregulation: The mistaken application of a principle of regular change to a word that changes irregularly Speech Acts: One- or two-word utterances that clearly refer to situations or to sequences of events. Discourse: Socially based conservation. Metalinguistic Awareness: The understanding of the sounds of a language is a system of communicating with others that is bound by rules. Phonological Awareness: The understanding of the sounds of a language and of the properties, such as the number of sounds in a word, related to these sounds. Bilingualism: The acquisition of two languages. Approaches to Language Development (Hoff, 2009) 1) Biological (Neurolinguistics) - Focuses on where in the brain processing takes place. 2) Linguistic or Nativist View - Innate linguistic knowledge. - Exposure leads to innate knowledge. 3) Learning Theory - No innate knowledge of language. - Brain is prepared for language but children learn by imitation, parental reinforcement. 4) Social-Cognitive or Pragmatic View (Developmental) - Language development is a gradual process. - General cognitive functioning not modules, social interaction. Universal Grammar: Noam Chomsky - Focuses on formal language. - Syntax allows for generating an infinite number of creative sentences. - Children could not have complete knowledge of language from positive and negative evidence alone. - How? Universal Grammar, Critical Period, Language-Acquisition Device (LAD). Response: Positive and Negative Evidence 1) Developmental View – Positive evidence plays a role in language learning. - Children do not hear jumbles but patterns. - The brain is a pattern interference/statistical device. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood 2) Negative Evidence In The Form of Recasting E.g. “Wa Wa” to water -> “Wa Wa”: Do you want some water? Or “He goed to the store -> Yes, he went to the store. 3) No Universal Grammar - No agreed upon base language. - Linguistics/Linguists can’t agree on what makes up certain structures on language. “Language is an instinct”: - Pinker: Language = distinct piece of biological make up of our brains. - Infants are born with an innate language module. - Innate knowledge of language (not language itself) is within the human genome, therefore, language = instinct. - Linguistic environment triggers innate knowledge. E.g. Children innate already ‘know’ about the subject aspect of a sentence but ‘learn’ that the subject is indicated by word order or syntax. – Children have an innate unchanging knowledge of structure; therefore, there is not real development. - There are underlying universal structures in language, the knowledge of which all infants are born with. - Nothing happens prior to 2-word stage. There is a universal aspect to two word utterances because two word utterances spoken by children across cultures have a subject-verb organization. Pinker: Evidence of the Language Instinct - Basic organization of grammar is weird into the baby’s brain – it’s an instinct. 1) Children learn language (2 or more word structures) in a relatively short-period time. 2) Grammatical errors are rare 0.1%. 3) Parents don’t correct child’s enough to learn language. 4) Critical period: Infancy to early puberty. - In early life infants are ‘universal phoneticians’ and can distinguish sounds in several language, but this ability disappears after two years. 5) Before infants can produce language they can comprehend it using their innate knowledge of subject-verb-object structure. 6) Modularity: The brain has dedicated areas for language. - Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Evidence for Pinker’s View: - Language impairments suggest specific genes dedicated to specific language structures. - The case of linguistic savants. Innate syntax because general low IQ – which may produce grammatically complex utterance. - Pidgin and Creole. A common means of communication results in Pidgin language, which lacks many syntactic features of natural languages. What do the socials have to say about the ‘instinct’? Tomasello, 1995. - Language is not an instinct because: 1) Does not fit the definition of what ‘instinct’ is E.g. Eye Blink - Would it be raised Isolation? NO! For example: Genie and Victor. 2) All humans have a language, but that doesn’t make a language an innate (genetic) capacity. - Language has a biological foundation and we have a set of cognitive and communicative competencies and apparatus, but it doesn’t mean specific linguistics structures are in the human genome. 3) From an evolutionary perspective, language may have developed as a result of several unrelated adapted capacities which came were selected for other reasons, which persisted because they fit a niche. - Language could be a cultural phenomenon such that if you don’t need it you don’t have much of it including words for concepts. Language could also be a cultural phenomenon such that if you don’t need it you don’t have much of it including words for concepts. - Language is a cultural adaptation – we have it because of communicative requirements of developing agrarian societies. Critique of Pinker: Universality Aspect: Linguists can’t agree on the nature of different structures in language; therefore, Pinker’s idea of universal structures is flawed. The universal phrase structure Pinker posits is not in Lahkota, which has no coherent verb phrase at all. - The innate grammatical relations between subject and object are not universal (Tagalog). - Many world languages uses morphemes expressing tense but how used varies (Mandarin has little morphology). It could be that for humans, we need to express certain things repeatedly and as such certain words or phrases get grammaticalized.  Similarly, not all languages have English-like categories of verb-noun. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Tomasello Continued: Language Impairments: Genes are proteins that are assembled in certain ways. They don’t have language in them. - No evidence of grammar genes that code for specific aspects of language structure. Brain Localization: Linguistic savants (studies on small sample). - William’s syndrome (syntax limited), a typical localization patterns. - Scattered brain activity, left-handed, some women, right brain language processing, and brain damage–plasticity. - Maybe a general cognitive processing of language that gets specialized over time not from the get go. Social Views of Language Development: Social-Pragmatic View: Children acquire in social interactions in which they are attempting to understand and interpret adult communicative intentions (Tomasello, 1995). - Language for change, not to label things. - Pragmatics = language use and it takes children up to 9 years to learn some pragmatic skills. - To make implicatures or infer meaning that specific kinds of talk are used under specific conditions. Universality: We all have language but use the use we put it to depends on our needs as a culture. - Language could be a cultural adaptation, which didn’t evolve until culture required it. Sound/Language Development: 1) Crying 2) Cooing (1 month) - Vowel-like sounds. 3) Babbling (6 months) - Consonant and vowel combo: “baba” 4) Patterned Speech (1 year) - Sounds like words but are not. 5) First Words (10-15 months) - Words increase Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood - Naming objects and action words. 6) Two words together (1.5-2 years) - Telegraphic Speech: “My Shoe”, “More Milk”. 7) Grammatical Sentences (2-3 years) - “I kicked it”, “That’s an orange car”. If Language Is An Instinct Then… - It is only at the two-word phase that is significant because this reveals syntax.  “Get Milk” Pinker from the Language Instinct - Newborn cries (not of linguistic concern) - 3 months cooing (not much happening) - 5-7 months use of vowel and consonants (does not express emotional or physical states) - 8 months babbling (only learning to coordinate throat muscles, universal babbling) - 1 year using gibberish sentences - 18 months there is a vocabulary explosion with two word utterances (syntax begins) and ‘all hell breaks loose’ – fluent constructions at 2-3 years - 3 years – child is considered to be a “grammatical genius” What is universal? Universal Aspect: Children tend to share similar in life: getting dressed, eating, going to bed – their learning of language is tied to experience and cognitive development. Cross-culturally, children begin using language by reflecting to and expressing familiar and similar relationships and events such as agent-action relations – ‘I go’, possessives – ‘mine’, people – ‘mama’ and things ‘wawa’. Pre-linguistic Communication: A Social View 1) Timing: Crying and smiling. 2) Simple gaze following: Simultaneous looking (Butterworth). 3) Gesture: 8 months, infants begin to point, but not until 1 year that they follow point of others. - Proto-Declarative Pointing = Look at that - Proto-Imperative Pointing = Get me that 4) Joint-Visual Attention: (1 year) Child knows the parents are looking. - Progression from simple gaze following and more cognitively complex because it means child understands intentions. (Tomasello) Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Facilitating Children’s Language Development What do parents indirectly and directly do to help children learn language? - Parents/siblings, peers are a language acquisition support system (LASS). E.g. Non-verbal games - peek-a-boo = helps turn taking, memory, eye contact, connecting emotions to sound. Pseudo-dialogs. - Parents use simplified speech or infant directed speech. The Social-Cognitive View: - Children have the physical, neural apparatus for language but it won’t get off the ground without social interaction. - Children play an active role in acquiring language. They respond to care givers cues. Deb Roy: Video - Parents spoke slowly with higher pitch, clear and exaggerated sounds, rising intonation, used short simplified sentences, repeated child’s words, coordinated their level with child’s ability (followed his cue) and increased their complexity. - Simplified speech = more positive infant emotions and is preferred.  May help the child learn how speech is divided into words, phrases, and utterances.  Adults do this with other adults when we don’t understand that has been said and sometimes we talk to seniors as if they were children. - Negative Evidence: Recasting (subtle corrections, expansions on simple words used by child). 30% of parents’ speech (in general) directed at expanding on child’s words. - Positive Evidence: No real instances of incorrect usage per se but instances of correct usage child learn about the world and about language from everyday use not just grammar use. - Joint Visual Attention: Looking at book, water cup, proto-imperative and proto- declarative pointing. Cooing - Vowel-like sounds starts - Sounds like ‘oooo’ of pigeons - Occurs during social exchanges Babbling - Strings of consonant-vowel combinations begin at 6 months goes until about 12 months. - Deaf babies babble with their hands and fingers. Cross-cultural element to babbling. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood - Bi-lingual babble has similarities between the languages. - Babbling sounds are related to actions the child is engaged in. About 8-12 Months - Sounds have a sentence-like quality and reliable sound – “goo” for familiar toy or object. - May say two or three words but uses same word for single category “wah” for both water and milk. One Word Utterances - Accompanied with gesturing. - Imitation of words, repeats the words, over and over. - May use an adjective ‘good boy’. - Understands the naming process. The Acquisition of Grammar Characteristics of Early Language Errors in word learning: - Overextension: Single word to cover many different things. Doggy refers to all 4- legged animals. - Under-extension: Single word used in a restricted way. ‘Car’ only mummy’s car. - Holophrase: 12-18 months. Word to express whole thought (subject, verb, object implied). Parents respond as if child means more. How Children Learn Words - Repeated experience of putting word to object (labelling). - Whole word constraints – label refers to whole object not part. - Cognitive skill necessary to make certain, narrowing judgments about a new word. E.g. knowing that “it” refers only to an object. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Word Acquisition Continued Constraints of language help infants learn: -By 18 months, children know that a word applies to an entire object. - By two years, children know that an unfamiliar word goes with an unfamiliar object. Presentation of Social Aspects and Pragmatics - Pragmatics – Discourse (socially based conversation) starts to occur around age four. - Children use context to figure out meaning and learn to register it. - Figurative language (analogies and metaphors). - Children have early understanding of the intentioned nature of language – to request, to greet, to complain, to refuse etc. Five-Years Olds - Use of pragmatic rules. - Use humour and figurative language. - More complex sentences. - Expansion of vocabulary to about 14,000 words. - Metalinguistic awareness – thinking about language use. What can a 5-year-old pragmatically? - Engage the listener by responding to them. - Participate in turn taking. - Still not good at multi-party talk and better talking about one concrete thing. - Adjusting speech to the listener (e.g., age, cultural background, situation). Adapt using different registers. - Know when they are being understood and try to self-correct. Using voicing to tell stories, talking about future, past, present, intentions. Bilingualism - Biligualism is proven to not interfere with performance in either language. - May learn both languages more slowly but catch up. - Activates same brain regions. - Community seems to have the greatest effect on bilingualism. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood 2) Piaget & Vygotsky - Ch. 8: Cognitive Development: Piaget & Vygotsky (Pgs.298-337) Key Terms: - Definitions from textbook. Cognition: The mental activity through which human beings acquire and process knowledge. Constructivist View: The idea that children actively create their understanding of the world as they encounter new information and have new experience. Schema (Schemas): An organized unit of knowledge that the child uses to try and understand a situation. - A schema forms the basis for organizing actions to respond to the environment. Organization: Combining simple mental structures into more complex systems. Operations: Schemas based on internal mental activities. Adaptation: The individual’s tendency to adjust to environmental demands. Assimilation: Moulding a new experience to fit an existing way of responding to the environment. Accommodation: Modifying an existing way of responding to the environment to the characteristics of a new experience. Stages of Development: Comprehensive, qualitative changes over time in the way child’s thinks. Sensorimotor Stage: Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, during which children move from purely reflexive behaviour to the beginnings of symbolic thought goal-directed behaviours. Object Permanence: The notion that entities external to the child, such as objects and people, continue to exist independent of the child’s seeing or interacting with them. Basic Reflex Activity: An infant’s exercise of and growing proficiency in the use of innate reflexes. Primary Circular Reactions: Behaviours in which infants repeat and modify actions that focus on their own bodies and that are pleasurable and satisfying. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Secondary Circular Reactions: Behaviours focused on objects outside the infant’s own body that the infant repeatedly engages in because they are pleasurable. Coordination of Secondary Schemata: An infant’s combination of different schemes to achieve a specific goal. Tertiary Circular Reactions: Behaviours in which infants experiment with the properties of external objects and try to learn how objects respond to various actions. Inventing New Means By Mental Combination: In this last stage of the sensorimotor period, children begin to combine schemes mentally, thus relying less on physical trial and error. Symbolic Thought: The use of mental images to represent people, objects, and events. Deferred Imitation: Mimicry of an action sometime after having observed it; requires that the child has stored a mental image of the action. Core Knowledge Systems: Ways of reasoning about ecologically important objects and events, such as the solidity and continuity of objects. Preoperational Stage: In this period, the symbolic function promotes the learning of language; the period is also marked by egocentricity and intuitive behaviour, in which the child can solve problems using mental operations but cannot explain how she did so. Symbolic Functions: The ability to use symbols, such as images, words, and gestures, to represent objects and events in the world. Pre-conceptual Substage: The first sub stage of Piaget’s pre-operational period, during which the child’s thought is characterized by animistic thinking egocentricity. Animistic Thinking: The attribution of life to inanimate objects. Egocentrism: The tendency to view the world from one’s own perspective and to have difficulty seeing things from another’s viewpoint. Intuitive Substage: The second substage of the preoperational period, during which the child begins to solve problems by means of specific mental operations but cannot yet explain how she arrives at the solutions. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Conservations: The understanding that altering an object’s or a substance’s appearance does not change its basic attributes or properties. Reversibility: The notion that one can reverse or undo a given operation, either physically or mentally. Ends-Over-Means Focus: Consideration of only the end state of a problem in evaluating an event; failure to consider the means by which that end state was obtained. Centration: Centring one’s attention on only one dimension or characteristic of an object or situation. Concrete Operations Stage: Period which the child acquires such concepts as conservation and classification and can reason logically. Formal Operations Stage: The period in which the child becomes capable of flexible and abstract thought, complex reasoning, and hypothesis testing. Theory of Mind: Understanding of the mind and how it works. Horizontal Décalage: The term Piaget used to describe unevenness in children’s thinking within a particular stage. E.g. in developing an understanding of conservation, children conserve different objects or substances at different ages. Mediators: According to Vygotsky, psychological tools and signs, such as language, counting, mnemonic devices, algebraic symbols, art, and writing. Elementary Mental Functions: Functions which the child is endowed with by nature, including attention, perception, and memory. Higher Mental Functions: Functions that rely on mediators that have become increasingly sophisticated through the child’s interaction with his environment. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): According to Vygotsky, the difference between the developmental level a child has reached and the level she is potentially capable of reaching with the guidance or collaboration of a more skilled adult or peer. Scaffolding: Based on Vygotsky’s thought, an instructional process in which the teacher continually adjusts the amount and type of support he offers as the child continues to develop more sophisticated skills. Reciprocal Instruction: A tutoring approach based on the ideas of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Community of Learners: An approach to classroom learning in which adults and children work together in shared activities, peers learn from each other, and the teacher serves as a guide. Guided Participation: Learning that occurs as children participates in activities of their community and are guided in their participation by the actions of more experienced partners in the setting. Intent Community Participation: Children’s participation in the authentic activities of their community with the purpose of learning about the activity. Egocentric Speech: According to Vygotsky, a form of self-directed dialogue by which the child instructs herself in solving problems and formulating plans; as the child matures, this becomes internalized as inner speech. Inner Speech: Internalized egocentric speech that continues to direct and regulate intellectual functioning. Microgenetic Change: Changes associated with learning that occur over the time of a specific learning experience or episode. Piaget (1896-1980) - Born in Switzerland. - First paper at 11 and he wrote 60 books and over 200 articles. - Ph.D. in Biology, with interest in molluscs. - Studied experimental psychology under Binet. - 3 kids, whom he studied. - Professor of Psychology, Sociology and Education. - Epistemologist (the nature of knowledge). - Interested in how knowledge develops, in forms of thinking, how these forms change over time. Constructivism: Humans are active systems connected to other systems. The more children experience the more they know. Children construct their own knowledge with the help of others. The Relationship Between Activity and Knowledge - Children keep acquiring new ways of thinking and understanding the world. In his later work, Piaget was interested in the development of logical thinking. - Piaget rejected the idea that children were born with innate knowledge of objects. This view implies that infants have adult-like knowledge that matures or unfolds; rather, children construct knowledge from their activities in the world. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood - Children act on the physical world, they take things apart, use trial and error. The way objects respond tells children information about how the world works. - Children’s cognitive growth works in tandem with their physical growth, their increasing ability to physically move about opens doors for exploration of object relations. This can’t be separated from their increasing sociality since as children move from egocentrism (their own bubble) to truly social behaviour (perspective- taking) they are able to apply this mental know-how to a greater extent of phenomena. Piaget was a social-cognitive theorist – social relations are vitally important for cognitive growth. - He did not underestimate children’s abilities because he saw cognitive development as on-going re-conceptualizations of basic knowledge and his criteria for assessing what children know was their actions or verbal feedback rather than looking times. How Children Develop New Knowledge - Children construct models or schemas of the external world from their activity/experience. Schemas form the knowledge base that children use to understand and interact with the environment E.g. Sucking and Reaching. - A key feature of developing knowledge is that it’s organized. Simple ideas combine to make more complex ideas. This organization is the child’s knowledge base they access to act on and interpret the world. - Knowledge changes given time and experience. Knowledge develops over time as the child tried to understand new information and combine it with current knowledge. What emerges is a new organization of the children’s knowledge, one that builds on the prior organization but extends this knowledge into new and more powerful directions. More on Schemas and Organization - Schemes: Organized units of knowledge.  Early schemes are things like looking schemes, grabbing schemes, sucking schemes.  Later, infants combine schemes (look then grab; look, grab, suck, drop). – They are able to intentionally coordinate schemes. - As children get older schemes move from the physical to the – mental. Children develop increasingly complex cognitive schemes (i.e., organized units of knowledge, conceptual knowledge) and they use logical or mental operations to organize their thinking and interpret experience. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood - Organization: Simple schemes are organized. E.g. If child has a scheme of cause and effect (age 9 months) their play is organized around this – drop a toy from a distance to see how it hits the floor and later how it crashed into another object. - In social relations – cry and see mum come to the rescue. - So the human organism tries to achieve a balance between assimilation of information into existing concepts or cognitive structures and the transformation of thinking to the environment. This disequilibrium is what moves cognitive development along. - The child interacts with others and things in the environment and they use schemes or organized units of knowledge to act on the world with. For example, Children interiorize these interactions to form internal models of reality or operational structures, which for the lens of perception upon which the child acts. Continued interaction with the environment leads to construction of increasingly complex and interrelated concepts required for processing information. In this way the child derives meaning from the environment or learns. - These cognitive developments occur before verbal language and therefore, Piaget didn’t place as much emphasis on language as Vygotsky. - Language learning develops the same way as other things do—by assimilation and accommodation. Cognitive development occurs within a context of language and it is reflected in language. Adaptation, Assimilation, Accommodation Adaptation: When schemas are modified in light of new experience (experience changes organizations). - Once a model or concept is constructed, children assimilate or integrate similar experiences into this existing concept/model/structure of thought. Apply existing schemes to new experience. Most toys fit with looking, grasping, sucking scheme. - If an object doesn’t fit with an existing scheme infant has to modify strategy for exploring the object. E.g. Beach ball can be looked at but not easily grasped or sucked. - Child has to accommodate or change their thinking – may have to hold, and lick. - Modified an existing scheme to fit the characteristics of the new situation/object. - Assimilation and accommodation work together. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Stages: Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Assimilation and accommodation work to balance each other, (equilibration), but they also come into conflict (disequilibrium). Language: The same general process of assimilation and accommodation. Stages: Disequilibrium. Small changes in understanding accumulate and result in movement to another ‘stage’. Same order, but age varies. Stages of Cognitive Development: Sensory Motor 1) Sensory Motor (Newborn to 2 years months): Reflexive behaviour – adding schemes and ends with language. - Time, space, causality, means-end reasoning, imaginative play. - Ends in language – words represent things. - Still egocentric. Major Characteristics and Accomplishments a) Object Permanence (things continue to exist when out of sight). May still commit the A not B error. Spatial relationships: in-out, up-down, gravity. b) Causality: Cause and effect. E.g. Turn handle and mouse pops up c) Time: Before and After. E.g. put on pyjamas after bath Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood A-not-B Error - Following more than one displacement of an object. Child looks where the last found object not where it was moved to (even when it was moved right in front of their eyes!) Other Views of Knowledge in Infancy - Piaget used manual searches because his theory is an activity theory – children construct knowledge through activity so what they do is observed. - But what about if you think children do have innate knowledge of concepts, objects, space, time?  Remove the activity and measure something – else surprise or looking time.  Surprise is measured given its thought to be an early emotional expression that can point to innate knowledge.  Baillergeon states infants have innate knowledge of object concept by 3.5 months. - Core Knowledge: Infants have innate knowledge of principles (deductive reasoning) but don’t have the details, understand physical laws, solidity of objects, what happens to objects. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Looking Time Paradigm-Object Permanence Nativist Focus: Innate concept knowledge measured by looking time. Constructivist Focus: Focuses on form of reasoning. - Knowledge develops in interaction on objects and with others. - Age varies and full conceptual knowledge is indicated by the child being able to ‘do’ some action indicates full conceptual knowledge. Critiques: Do Infants Have Adult-like Knowledge? 1) Infant must re-present the impossible event as something to be ‘surprised’ about. - Do they have complex representational ability and memories? 2) Implication is that infants have knowledge about the way the world works. They have a belief about what should occur and they reason about what did occur using core knowledge about rules on how contacting objects behave (laws of gravity etc.). 3) From a Piagetian perspective, how is “understanding” operationally defined? - In everyday terms, what does it mean? 4) Infants can do what toddlers cannot (Haith, 1998; Newcombe, 2002). - If infants can reason, make inferences, and know arithmetic why can’t and don’t 3- year-olds? - Mistakes early or nascent ability as mature ability. 5) Many factors effect looking and attention. Studies suggest infants respond to contour or edge of figure not number. Pre-Operational Period 1) Pre-operational (ages 2-7). Semi-logical pattern of thought. - Animistic thinking: inanimate objects are alive. - Egocentric thinking—children can only see the world from their perspective. - Three mountains task Major characteristics and accomplishments a) Attributing life to inanimate objects (e.g., dolls have feelings). b) Egocentric thinking: World is organized around the self. c) Associations thinking: Things that happen at the same time cause each other or things that are unrelated are related. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood d) Perceptually bound: No regard for the physically impossible (e.g., Santa can be in two malls at the same time). e) Semi-logical—can’t reverse a series of mental steps, has ends-over-means focus (ignores pouring and focuses on water level), tendency to centrate (stay focused on one viewpoint). f) Early pre-operational children may lack reversibility 5+2= 7 but not 7-2=5 g) Don’t have concept of conservation and transitivity (holding 2 concepts in head at same time). h) Focus on immediate future. Concrete Operations 1) Concrete Operations (ages 7-11). Major Characteristics and Accomplishment a) Logical reasoning using rules for operations. Logic over perceptions – do they go with what they see or with concept knowledge? b) Reversibility: Can reverse operations mentally E.g. If 3+2=5 then 5-3=2 c) Transitivity: Holding 2 relationships in mind at the same time. Early ages can’t do serration task, which is ordering three sticks according to length even with a model. d) Ability to de-centre when solving problems (move away from their view to weigh multiple information at the same time) E.g. How much juice there is depends on both height and weight of the container). e) Perceive the underlying reality E.g. Santa can’t be in two malls at the same time. f) Still focuses on immediate not future. g) Can sort cards based on 2 properties (team and position). Formal Operations 1) Formal Operations (Adolescence) Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Major Characteristics and Accomplishments a) Abstract thinking (algebra), using symbolism in literature. b) Systematic logical thinking (scientific method). c) Metacognition (thinking about thinking). d) Hypothetical thinking “what if.” e) Future Oriented. Summary of Stages Sensorimotor: 0-2. Thought confined to action schemes. Differentiates self from objects. Basic understanding of time, space, means-end. Late stage, symbolic thought. Pre-operational: 2-7. Symbol use or language, thinking is semi-logical. Class, relations. Concrete Operations: 7-12. Logical reasoning on what is physically present. Can do conservation, reversibility, classification and role-playing. Formal Operations: 12 and up. Abstraction, mental hypothesis testing. Consider alternatives in complex reasoning and problem solving. Piaget (1896-1934) - Born in Belarus into non-religious Jewish family. - Law degree in 1917 and attended the Institute of Psychology in Moscow. - Marxist: No separation between social and individual development. - 6 books on child development and education – focused on learning disabilities. - Died at the age of 37 from tuberculosis. The Importance of Culture in Assessing Cognitive Development - Vygotsky stressed that cognitive ability is embedded in culture. - Tools one uses for thinking are a function of culture – everyday needs and those pasts down by tradition. E.g. Literacy or oral - Ignoring culture risks underestimating the child’s intellectual capabilities. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Sociocultural Approach: How do children develop social cognition? Fundamental point: The human mind is mediated (Lantolf, 1996). - Just like we use tools (hammers etc.) as a go-between (a mediator) between our physical selves and our environment we rely on psychological, symbolic, and cultural tools to mediate (and regulate) behaviour and individual thinking. Elementary & Higher Mental Functions - Elementary mental functions: basic attention, memory, and perception. Origin in evolution & biology. - Higher mental functions: Involves the use of meditators that are developed within a culture. Language is a universal mediator. - HMF’s are things like voluntary attention, intentional memory, planning, logical thought, learning, problem solving, and evaluation. Regulation of behaviour. Development: EMF to HMF - The child transitions into HMF’s, but EMF’s & HMF’s are always in interaction. - Transition from EMF to HMF is considered a ‘revolution’ in cognitive functioning. - HMF: Social and cultural factors become the primary determinants of mental development. - Hallmark of HMF’s is an ability to be aware that different people may hold different perspectives. The Role of Language - Primary cultural tool that mediates individual mental functioning. - Egocentric speech, inner (private speech), thinking. - For Piaget child begins as egocentric (own view) and gradually becomes social (defined as being able to see things from another’s perspective). - For Vygotsky, child is social from the beginning and gradually gets more individualistic as thinking develops. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood The Relationship Between Thought and Language Social speech to private speech to inner speech Thought is Social Because: 1. Thoughts and understanding emerge from the internalization of lifelong social interaction. 2. Thinking is therefore distributed or shared amongst people. 3. Language (words and meanings) is rooted in particular cultures. Zone of Proximal Development ZPD describes how cognitive development can arise from social interaction with more skilled partners. Distance between actual level determined by independent problem-solving and potential level with guidance. ZPD also used to assess children’s intellectual potential when help targets the child’s specific needs. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Scaffolding - Instruction creates the ZPD - The tutor monitors the learner to provide help when needed. - The tutor adjusts the amount and type of support offered to fit with the child’s learning needs. - Can be verbal and physical instruction. Effective Tutoring 1) Model the steps for solving the task. 2) Break down the task into manageable units. 3) Monitor the child and adjust the level of instruction to the child’s level. 4) Take on harder parts of task to free child up to concentrate on specific things. 5) Present alternative perspectives the child can understand. 6) Don’t ‘lose’ the child and let the child participate even though they may only understand fully later on. 7) Let the child take even greater responsibility for the task. 8) Context matters. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood 3) The Family - Ch. 11: Cognitive Development: The Information-Processing Approach (Pgs. 423-465) Key Terms: - Definitions from Textbook Socialization: The process by which parents and others ensure that a child’s standards of behaviour, attitudes, skills, and motives conform closely to those deemed appropriate to her role in society. Authoritative Parenting: Parenting that is warm, responsive, and involved yet unintrusive, and in which parents set reasonable limits and expect appropriately mature behaviour from their children. Authoritarian Parenting: Parenting that is harsh, unresponsive, and rigid and in which parents tends to use power-assertive methods of control. Permissive Parenting: Parenting that is lax and in which parents exercise inconsistent discipline and encourage children to express their impulses freely. Uninvolved Parenting: Parenting that is indifferent and neglectful and in which parents focus on their own needs rather than on their own needs rather than on their children’s needs. Co-Parenting: Parenting in which spouses work together as a team, coordinating their childrearing practices with each other; co-parenting can be co-operative, hostile, or characterized by different levels of investment in the parenting task. Extended Family: Typically, a family that includes many relatives, such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, and nephews, within the basic family unit of parents and children. Traditional Nuclear Family: The traditional family, form composed of two parents and one or more children, in which the father is the breadwinner and the mother the homemaker. Latchkey Children: Children who must let themselves into their homes after school because a parent or both parents are working outside their home. Joint Legal Custody: A form of child custody in which both parents retain and share responsibility for decisions regarding the child’s life but which generally provides for the child to reside with one parent. Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood Joint Physical Custody: As in joint legal custody, parents make decisions together regarding their child’s life, but they also share physical custody, the child living with each parent for a portion of the year. Sexual Abuse: Inappropriate sexual activity between an adult and a child for the perpetrator’s pleasure or benefit; the abuse may be direct (sexual contact of any type) or indirect (exposing a child to pornography or to the live exhibition of body parts or sexual acts). Family Systems - Boundaries, enmeshment, triangles. - Parenting styles. - Sibling order. - Resilience. Routes to Parenthood - Delaying parenthood – donor insemination, surrogates. - Gay and lesbian parents: no different. Love, support, warmth is the key. - Adoption: Risk factor even though most kids turn out fine. The Family System and Sub-Systems What is the family system? - Interdependent members of a group. Family is like a mobile where altered behaviour of entire family system. - Systems are dynamic. There is usually stability (homeostasis) but crises or bumps (disequilibrium) that requires adaptation. Ecological Systems Perspective Psychology 250 – Developmental Psychology Final Exam Review, Prof: Sherrie Atwood What is a family? - A family is like a system – they are made up of individuals who have different relationships between each other. These relationships are independent. There is a structure in a family determined not just by role (parents/children) but also by how individuals in the family interact. - Family members interact in predictable patterns, which help retain equilibrium and provide clues to members about they should behave. Hierarchies in Families - How family organize themselves into smaller units or subsystems to accomplish tasks and goals. Together these sub-systems comprise the larder family (Minuchin, 1974). - Can be organized around gender or age. - Therapists focus on 3 subsystems: Couple, Parental and Sibling.
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