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Psychology 260 Midterm Review Notes.docx

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PSYC 260
Lara Aknin

Psychology 260 Midterm Review NotesChapter 8What is a Group o Group A collection of three or more people who interact with one another and are interdependent in a sense that their needs and goals cause them to rely on one another o Why People Join GroupsForming relationships with other people fulfills basic human needsEvolutionary advantage to bonding with othersResearch suggests that groups we belong to might play important role in who we expect to be in the futureGroup membership motivates people to become involved in social change o The Composition and Functions of GroupsMost groups range in size from 36 membersIf groups are too large cannot interact with all membersMembers are alike in age sex beliefs opinionsMany groups attract people who are similar before they joinGroups operate in ways that encourage similarity in membersSocial NormsPowerful determinant of behaviorSocial RolesSocial Roles Shared expectations by group members about how particular people in the group are supposed to behavePeople can get so into a role that their personal identity and personality are lostGender RolesOptions limited for women due to genderrole stereotypingGroup CohesivenessGroup Cohesiveness Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among themIf the group has formed for social reasons more cohesiveness is desiredGroup members concern with maintaining good relations can get in the way of finding solutions to problemsHow Groups Influence the Behaviour of Individuals o Social Facilitation When the Presence of Others Energizes UsAs long as the task is simple and well learned the presence of others improves performanceSimple versus Difficult TasksPeople and animals do worse in the presence of others when the task is difficultArousal and the Dominant ResponseThe presence of others increases physiological arousalThis arousal makes it easier to do something simple but more difficult to do something complexSocial Facilitation The tendency for people to do better on simple tasks but worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluatedWhy the Presence of Others Causes ArousalOther people cause us to become particularly alert and vigilantThey make us apprehensive about how were being evaluatedThey distract us from the task at hand o Social Loafing When the Presence of Others Relaxes UsSocial Loafing The tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluatedGender and Cultural Differences in Social Loafing Who Slacks Off the MostTendency to loaf is stronger in men than in womenTendency is also stronger in Western culturesNeed to know two things to predict whether the presence of others will help or hinder your performance o Whether your efforts can be evaluated o Whether the task is simple or complex o Deindividuation Getting Lost in the CrowdDeindividuation The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people are in a group leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant actsWhy Does Deindividuation Lead to Impulsive ActsThe presence of othersthe wearing of uniformsdisguises makes people feel less accountable for their actionsThe presence of others lowers self awareness shifting peoples attention away from their moral standardsIncreases the extent to which people obey the groups normsGroup Decisions Are Two or More Heads Better than One o Groups will do better than individuals if people are motivated to search for the answer that is best for the entire group and not just for themselves o Process Loss When Group Interactions Inhibit Good Problem SolvingGroup will only do well if the most talented member can convince the others that he or she is rightProcess Loss Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solvingFailure to Share Unique InformationTendency for groups to focus on what members already know in common but not discuss information that some members have but others dontUnshared information more likely to be brought up later in the discussionTransactive Memory The combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individualGroupthink Many Heads One MindGroupthink A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realisitic mannerMost likely to occur when o The group is highly cohesive o Isolated from contrary opinions o Ruled by a directive leader who makes their wishes knownGroup feels invulnerable and as if it can do no wrongGroup members do not voice contrary viewsAvoiding the Groupthink TrapRemain impartialSeek outside opinionsCreate subgroupsSeek anonymous opinions o Group Polarization Going to ExtremesGroup Polarization The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their membersGroup members end up with a greater number of arguments in support of their positionMany people take the position of the group to be liked o Leadership in GroupsGreat Person Theory The theory that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader regardless of the situation the leader faces
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