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PSYC 280- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 99 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 280
Professor
Neil Watson
Study Guide
Midterm

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SFU
PSYC 280
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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CH8 SEX
3Cs: courting, copulating and cohabiting
- Cultural barriers to desseminating information about sexual behavior
- The remarkable variety of sexual behaviors
Copulatory patterns
1. Sexual attraction
- Most male mammals are attracted by particular female odors, which tend to reflect
estrogen levels
- Estrogen attraction is associated with the release of eggs
- Female sexual attractiveness peak fertility
2. Appetitive behavior
- Species-specific behaviors that establish, maintain, or promote sexual interaction
- Proceptive (female): she may approach males, remain close to them, or show
alternating approach and retreat behaviors
- Eg rats exhibit ear igglig, a hoppig ad dartig gait to idue a ale to out
- Male appetitive behaviors usually consist of staying near the female, and the male
usually stiff around the feales face ad agia
3. Consummatory behavior (coitus/ copulation)
- Intromission (insertion of penis into the vagina ) stimulation (pelvic thrusting)
male ejaculates semen into female refractory phase (period after copulation,
hih opulatio ot reoee
- Coolidge effect: males (and to a les ser extent females ) exhibit renewed s exual interes t if
introduced to new receptive s exual partners
- Heat: estrus = the periods during which female animals are sexually receptive= willing
to copulate (coincides with ovulation, conditions are necessary for reproduction)
4. Post-copulatory behaviors
- Rolling (in the cat), grooming (rat)
- Extensive parental behaviors to nurture the off springs(humans)
- Copulatory lock: ales peises sell ad lock i place for a while, never in humans
Maximizes probability of paternity, minimizes copulation by other rival males
Eg whiptail lizards, dogs, grasshopper mice
- Penis captivus: a rare occurrence in intercourse when the muscles in the
vagina clamp down on the penis much more firmly than usual (a form of
vaginismus), making it impossible for the penis to withdraw from the vagina.
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- Internal fertilization (all mammals, birds, reptiles): the fusion of their gametes sperm
and ovum, to form a zygote
- Spontaneous ovulators: females ovulate even when they are left alone
- Lordosis: a female receptive posture in four-legged animals in which the hindquarters
are raised and the tail is turned to one side, facilitating intromission by the male
- Activational effect: a temporary change in behavior resulting from the administration
of a hormone to an adult
- Female rats require significant vaginal stimulation from copulation to get pregnant
males intromit a number of times before ejaculating hormonal preparation for
pregnancy
Pseudopregnancy
- Females mated with castrated males (who are receiving replacement testosterone) get
the usual vaginal stimulation, and hence undergo hormonal changes (prolactin release)
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