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Bio-Psych: Classes, examples, and effects of Drugs.doc

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 280
Neil Watson

Classes of Drugs Examples Drug Effects Antipsychotic (relieves Typical Neuroleptics: Selective antagonists of Dopamine D2 receptors schizophrenia) (Neuroleptics) Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) Haloperidol (Haldol) Loxapine (Loxitane) Atypical Neuroleptics: Blockade of serotonin receptors; reduce negative-symptoms Clozapine (social withdrawal, blunted emotional responses) Antidepressants (relieves chronic Monoamine Oxidase inhibitors (MOA): Inhibit the breakdown of monoamine NTs, therefore allowing mood problems) Tranylcypromine (Parnate) monoamine NTs to accumulate at the synapses = improved Isocarboxazid (Marplan) mood Tricyclics: Increase the synaptic content of the monoamines (NE and Imipramine (Tofranil) serotonin) by blocking reuptake into the presynaptic axon terminal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Selectively allows serotonin to accumulate in synapse (SSRIs): Fluoxetine (Prozac) Sertraline (Zoloft) Citalopram (Celexa) Anxiolytics (combat anxiety)/ Barbiturates ('downers') Reduce anxiety, promote sleep, prevent seizures, analgesic, Depressants anticonvulsant effects Benzodiazepine agonist: Bind to specific sites on GABA Aeceptors to enhance GABA Diazepam (Valium) activity (inhibitory = reduction in excitability of neurons) Lorazepam (Ativan) Buspirone (Buspar) A seraotonergic agonist & a partial agonist of dopamine D2 receptors. Alcohol (Depressant) Biphasic results: initial stimulant, prolonged depressant/ sedative phase; 1) activates GABA reAeptor-coupled Cl channel, increasing postsynaptic inhibition 2) binds to Glutamate receptors, preventing glutamate from exciting cell (leads to social inhibition & impairment of motor control, affects memory-formation, decision making, and impulse- control; in low-doses, = slightly euphoric (dopamine pathways)) Opiates (relieves pain) Morphine Analgesic; sedation; feeling of well-being; (Depressant) Heroin 1 codeine mimics endogenous opiates, therefore binding to opiate receptors (endogenous opiates shut down the release of dopamine-inhibiting NTs) so dopamine is released and floods the synapse. Cannabinoids Marijuana (THC = the active chemical Body's endogenous cannabinoid = anandimide (activates ingredient) cannabinoid receptors to turn off the dopamine-inhibiting NTs). THC mimics anandimide; thus dopamine is allowed to rush into synapse (removes unnecessary short-term me
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