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Ch 2 Functional Neuroanatomy.doc

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PSYC 280
John Reynolds

Ch 2 Functional NeuroanatomyEvery organ and muscle communicates with each other using the nervous system1Nervous system made up of nerve cellsneurons arranged in neural circuits2Process each neuron receives input from othersintegrates those inputsdistributes the processed info to other neurons3Our brain integrates this info by assembling billions of tiny infoprocessing units into an array of circuitsinteract through electrical messages4Gial cells supports and makes contributions to info processingprovide nutrition and structure to brainInterconnection of nerve cells was debatedThanks to microscopes 19thc they were able to look at the shapes and sizes of neurons in the brainBut how the neurons interacted was a mysteryGolgi thought neurons were continuous with one another forming a tube of network lineconnectionCajal said neurons are very close to each other but arent continuous but separated between tiny gapsNeuron doctrine hypothesisThe brain is composed of separate neurons and other cells are independent structurally metabolically and functionallyInfo is transmitted from each cell across the tiny gaps synapse15The human brain has 10 synapsesOrganelles in a neuronMitochondria a cellular organelle that gives metabolic energy for the cells processesCell nucleus contains genetic instructions contains chromosomes Ribosomes translate genetic instructions into proteins4 functional parts of the neuronDendrites cellular extensions receives info from other neurons input zoneCell bodysoma has the cell nucleus receive synaptic contacts inputs are combined and transformed here an integration zoneAxon sends the cells output info in electrical signals away from the cell body construction zoneAxon terminals swellings at the end of axon sends neurons activity to other cells at synapse output zoneWhen dyes were introduced this made hidden parts of nerve cells more vivid and evident2 traditional cell stains Golgi stains fill the whole cell including dendritic spinesThis technique only stains a little bit of cells good for identifying the type and shape of cellsNissl stains dyes all cell bodies bc this due attracts to RNA inside the cell
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