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CH 4 The chemistry of behavior.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 280
Professor
John Reynolds
Semester
Spring

Description
CH 4 The chemistry of behaviorExogenous substance animal vege and mineral compounds that change the function of our bodybrain foodMany chemical neurotransmitters have been identifiedEndogenous substance substance from an internal source eg a neurotransmitterCriteria to be considered a neurotransmitterIt exists in presynaptic axon terminalsPresynaptic cell contains appropriate enzymes for synthesizing the substanceSubstance is released when action potential reach the terminalsReceptors that recognize the released substance exists on the postsynaptic membraneThe substance produces change in postsynaptic cellsBlocking release of the substance prevents presynaptic activity from affecting the postsynaptic cellTypes of neurotransmittersAmine acetylcholine occurs in PNSCNS alzheimers disease dopamine serotoninAmino acid GABA glutaminePeptide short chains of amino acidsGas diffuses bw neurons to alter ongoing processesNeurotransmitters interact w receptors protein molecules in the postsynaptic that recognizes the transmitter Ionotropic receptor includes an ion channel that opens when it is bound by an agonistMetabotropic receptormay when activated uses G protein system to open ion channel no ion channel but Receptor subtype receptors have different functional characteristicscan trigger dif responses in target cellsLigand substance that binds to receptor molecules their effectsLigand as an agonist initiates the normal effects of the transmitter on the receptorAs an antagonist binds to a receptor and blocks it from being activated from other ligandAs an inverse agonist binds to a receptor initiates an effect opposite of the normal function of the receptorThere are drugs that compete to bind to a receptor competitive ligandthere are drugs that bind to a diff area of their receptor and dont normally bind to their usual transmitternoncompetitive ligand binding to a modulatory site on a receptor brain produces substances called endogenous ligandsNeurotransmitter systems form a complex array in the brainsome neurons have more than 1 neurotransmitter colocalizationmore than 1 transmitter in presynaptic terminalacetycholine was the first transmitter identified from Loewis experimentreleased by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons by motorneurons and by neurons in the braincholinergic cells that use acetycholine as their synaptic transmitter
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