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Ch 5 Hormones and the brain.doc

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PSYC 280
John Reynolds

Ch 5 Hormones and the brainCells in our bodies use chemicals to communicateincluding hormonesAlternations in hormone levels produce changes in brain functionCognitive abilities emotions appetite aggressiveness care for our childrenEarly in life Thyroid and sex hormones regulate brain developmentLater in life outputs in endocrine glands and bodys changing sensitivity to hormones involve in adolescence and agingHormones have many actions in the bodyAncient GreeksBody humorsfluidsemotions and temperament all interacted to produce healthdiseaseEg phlegmatic sluggish sanguine cheerful choleric hot tempereddescribed personalitiesTodayHormones chemicals secreted by one group of cells and carried through the bloodstream to other areas of the body where they act on certain tissues to create some physiological effectHormones can act locally without travelling through bloodstream to affect other cellsHormones produced byEndocrine glands release hormones inside the body from heart kidneys pancreas etcExocrine glands release hormones outside the body tears sweatCastration removal of testes Aristotle compared the behavioral and bodily effects with those seen ineunuch castrated mentestes important for sexual characteristics and reproductionEffects of castration was due to the loss of hormones in testesExperiment roosters were castrated when young and they eventually failed to reproduce and have secondary sexual characteristics rooster comb or that red thing on their headBut placing testis into the body preserved normal development of adult autonomybehavior Testes release testosterone hormone into the blood that affects behavior and structureBut brain and body are organized by exposure to hormones early in life and these changes can be dramatic and longlastingif you wait till adulthood to provide hormones they affect the body and behavior but changes are less dramatic and tend to be shortlivedHormones are activated behaviorOrganisms use different chemical communicationEndocrine communication chemical signalhormones released into bloodstream to selectively affect distant target organsSynaptic communication also called neurocrine function release chemical across synaptic cleft and causes a change in postsynaptic membraneAutocrine communication released chemicals are like releasing cells itself eg common for a neuron to contain autoreceptors where neurotransmitter molecules are releasedcell can monitor its own activity neurotransmitter serves for autocrine and synaptic function
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