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Ch 6 Evolution of the Brain and Behaviour.doc

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 280
John Reynolds

Ch 6 Evolution of the Brain and BehaviourHow the variety of species arise on earthNaturalists disagreed with the idea that each species were created separatelyEg limb of all mammals look alikeEvolution process of descent with modificationNatural Selection drives evolutionEvolution by natural selection introduced by Wallace and DarwinSpecies were descended from a common ancestor but separated when environments split offor they movednatural selection allowed them to create different features eg finches with different beak size for nutsfruitReproduction will increase population exceedinglyIndividuals of a certain species arent identicalSome of the variation among individuals is inheritedNot all offspring of a certain generation survive to reproduceVariations among individuals affect the probability of their surviving reproducing and passing on traitsSexual selection Darwin proposed that each sex are choosy in terms of anatomical and behavioural features that favor reproductive successConvergent evolution similar ecological features bring about similarities in behaviour or structure in animals that are only distantly relatedEg tuna is a fish but a dolphin is a mammaland they resemble similar body forms cause they evolved for efficient swimming Homoplasy resemblance between physical or behavioral characteristics due to convergent evolutionHomology similarities based on common ancestry eg similarities in limb structure of animalsAnalogy similar function but structures may look differentModern evolutionary theory combines natural selection and geneticsAustrian monk Mendel worked with peas to describe biological inheritancelinked to evolution Dutch biologist De Vries worked with Primrosesreasoned that evolution can proceed by sudden jumps or mutations mutations are heritableMutations can be a good bad or neutral thingConspecifics the good side of mutationyou get to pass down these good mutated traitsGenetics study of mechanisms of inheritance Eg fruitfly Drosophilia reproduced rapidly generation time is only 10 daysChromosomes colourbody coiled DNA in cell nuc
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