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Ch 8 General principles of sensory processing.doc

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PSYC 280
John Reynolds

Ch 8 General principles of sensory processingSensory receptor organs detect energy or substancesSensory receptor organs act as filters of the enviro they detect and respond to some events but not othersReceptor cells within organs and detect stimuli and convert them into language of the nervous system electrical signalsthen the info from sensory receptor organs enters the brain as action potentialsTypes of receptor organs detectors for infrared radiation snakes electrical fields fish Earths magnetic field dolphinsMechanical touch pain hear vestibular head movement orientation joint muscleVisual seeingThermal Cold warmthChemical smell taste common chemical change in CO vomeronasal pheromones in air water2Electrical electroreception difference in density if electrical currentsAdequate stimulus a given sensory organ is particularly adapted Eg adequate stimulus for eye photic light energy electrical shockpressure on eye create illusory sensation of light but electricalmechanical pressure is not considered the adequate stimulus for eyeHumans cant hear with frequencies above 20000 cycles per sec Hzultrasonic But bats can hear vibrations 50000 Hz Unlike humans birds and bees see ultraviolet range of lightSpecific nerve energies receptors and neural channels for the dif senses are independent and each uses a dif nerve energy eg no matter how the eye is stimulated lightmechanical pressureelectrical shock the resulting sensation is always a visual dif receptor organs might each use a dif type of energy to communicate with he brain and the brain knew which type of stimulus just happened by which type of energy was receivedThese energy from senses action potentials but brain recognize dif type of sensation because each sensation sends its action potential to separate nerve tracts labeled linesSensory processing begins in receptor cellsDetection of energy starts with receptor cells which is specialized to detect certain energychemicalsThen receptor cell converts energychemical into electrical potential across membrane sensory transductionsome receptor cells have axons to transmit info Others have no axons of their own but stimulate associated nerve endings mechanically or chemicallystructure of receptor determines the forms of energy to which it will respondreceptor potential arrival of energy at a receptor cell and initiation of action potentials in a nerve fiber of membrane potential resembles excitatory postsynaptic potentialeg pacinian corpuscle skin receptor cell type that detects vibration in skin and musclemechanical stimuli vibration delivered to corpuscle produce an electrical potential with an amplitude proportional to the stimulus then once potential becomes strong creates action potential and has reached a thresholdsequence of excitatory eventsmechanical stimulation forms corpuscledeformation of corpuscle stretches the tip of the axonstretching the acon opens mechanically gated ion channels in membrane allowing Na ions to enterwhen the receptor potential reaches threshold axon produce more action poitentials
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