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Ch 10 Vision

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PSYC 280
John Reynolds

Ch 10 Visioneye has optical capture light form imagesneural functions transduce light into neural signals and process itwithout optical images light sensitive cells can only detect only in presenceabsence of light and not the formscornea outer layer that bends light rays refraction and form images on retinalens help focus image on retinain mammals and birds focus is controlled by ciliary muscles inside eye controls the shape of lensaccommodation process of focusing by ciliary muscles and lens to form a sharp image on retinapupil amount of light that enters eye controlled by size of pupilincludes opening Ach transmission in parasympathetic synapse relaxes muscle fiber and allows pupil to dilateMorphine constricts pupilExtraocular muscles movement of eyesRetina visualinfo process starts here using receptor cells photoreceptors detect lightrods and cones release transmitters that control activity of bipolar cells that synapse with themconnect with ganglion cellstheir axons form optic nervecarries info to brainHorizontal cells retinal cells that contact receptor and bipolar cellsimportant in interactions within retinaAmacrine cells retinal cells that contact bipolar and ganglion cells important in interactions within retinaRods cones bipolar cells and horizontal cells generate only graded local potentialsno action potentials just respond to release of neurotransmitters in response to graded changes in electrical potentials ganglion cellsaction potentialfirst electrical activity recorded in retinaScotopic system rods used work in dim lightgrey lots of convergence sending info to each ganglion cellPhotopic system cones used work with more lightcolourless convergence sensing info from 1 conePhotoreceptors transduce light into chemical reactions from cones and rodsStacking of conesrods increase likelihood that one will capture light particles photons that reach retinaLight captured by photopigments rodsrhodopsinRod and cones photopigments consist of retinal and opsin
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