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Ch 19 Language and hemispheric asymmetry.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 280
Professor
John Reynolds
Semester
Spring

Description
Ch 19 Language and hemispheric asymmetry Language disorders result from regionspecific brain damageAphasia Damage on the left cerebral hemisphere of brain can affect language abilitiesBrocas area frontal lobe of brain involved in speechParaphasia inserts incorrect soundswords sound substitutionsNeologisms nonsense words generated with the insertionsubstitution of one or more phonemesNonfluent speech talking with effort in short sentences no melodic like character of conversational speechAgraphia trouble with writingalexia trouble with reading many aphasias have thisThose with aphasia produce a motor impairment apraxia difficulty in executing a sequence of movements impaired ability to do skilled voluntary movements even though theres no muscle paralysisAphasia is a result of problems with motor mechanismsbut good at one domain eg detect if one is lyingLesions of a left frontal speech zone cause nonfluentBrocas aphasiaDifficulty in producing speech talking only in a hesitant manner readingwriting impairedBut can utter automatic speech hello OMG swears and good w comprehension of languageMay suffer from hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body usually rightcontrolled by left hemisphereInstead of a full paralysis may get hemiparesis weakness of one side of bodyLesions of a left back speech zone cause fluentWernickes aphasiaProduce plenty of verbal output but although its speechlike they tend to have paraphasis that make their speech unintelligible eg girl becomes curl neologisms common tooAnomia some aphasias are marked by certain difficulty in naming people or objectsto repeat wordssentences is impairedaphasias may have difficulty understanding what they readhearin fluent aphasia the most prominent brain lesions are in posterior regions of the left superior temporal gyrus and extends into parietal cortex including the nearby gyriwhen word deafness inability to understand spoken words is more evident than reading impairment they have greater involvement of superior temporal lobe especially from auditory cortexwhen word blindness inability to understand written words is more evident they have impaired gyrusthose with fluent aphasia unlike those with nonfluent aphasia dont display hemiplegialefthemisphere damage can obliterate language capabilitiesglobal aphasia brain injury or diseaseloss of the ability to understandproduce languagemay keep few ability for automatic speechegemotional exclamationbut speak a few wordsno syntaxresults from large left hemisphere lesions that affect both anterior and posterior language zoneseg
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