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Psyc 303 Chapter 9 - Space. Exam Review

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 303
Thomas Spalek

Ch9 Types of depth perception - Absolute distance o Actual distance of an object o Estimating it involves egocentric localization  Knowing where our bodies are relative to other objects in environment - Relative distance o Is the pencil closer to the book or the coffee cup also on the desk o To judge this we need object-relative localizations  Estimates of distances btw objects in environment o Judgment of relative distance also involved in perception of whether an object is flat or solid – spatial relationships btw parts of an object - How do we tell that objects are 3d from a 2d retinal image? o Revisit old perception models from ch1 o Direct perception  Three assumptions:  All the info needed to see 3d is present in the retinal image or in relationships among parts of the retinal image  Visual scene analyzed by the brain in terms of whole objects and surfaces rather than in terms of elementary stimulus attributes such as edges, colours, and specific locations that make up objects  The impression of depth or distance arises immediately in the observer on viewing the stimulus and requires no further computation or info o Computational theories of vision  David Marr o Modularity of perception  Jerry Fodor  Views the mind as a distinc set of units or modules, each with a specific function with dedicated neural hardware that can do a specific bit of processing or computation. No conscious intervention required o Intelligent perception  Hemholtz  Like other mental processes, we can use info based on our previous experience, expectations, etc.  Also called constructive theories Pictorial Depth Cues - Also called monocular cues o They not only appear in pictures but also are available when only one eye is used to view a scene. - Interpositions (occlusion) o A nearer object blocks a further one o The perceptual completion of the occluded figure is called amodal completion  The missing parts of the figure are perceptually present even though there are no physical stimuli to support that conclusion - Figures closer to a light source will be brighter (further away will be in shadow) - Accommodation o Lens changes shape depending on proximity of object  Contraction of ciliary muscles for near objects  Relaxation of ciliary muscles for far objects - Shadows o Attached Shadow  Shadow/shading ON an object o Cast Shadow  Shadow cast on the ground by an object - Aerial perspective o Ima
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