Study Guides (248,605)
Canada (121,634)
Psychology (531)
PSYC 308 (33)

Week 2-7 Course Objectives (Midterm Notes).docx

16 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 308
Jennifer Bazar

This preview shows pages 1,2,3,4. Sign up to view the full 16 pages of the document.
Week 2 – Course Objectives 3/4/2013 4:59:00 PM 1. Define the Key Concepts in the practice of history: Historiography, presentism vs. historicism, external vs. internal histories.  Historiography: “The writing of history; written history” o Research method of history o Understanding the past in its own context  Presentism: Interpreting the past via the attitudes and values of the present o Ex. Christine Ladd-Franklin  Higher education for women  Understanding her life considering norms of that time rather than questioning by applying norms of today  Internal history will examine the individual but to apply and receive a bigger picture, one will tie in to the overall state of the college and education of women during that time and gain knowledge of different norms The practice of history: Historiography  Pose a question/hypothesis  Collect data  Engage in interpretive study  Weigh the evidence 2. Describe the process of researching the history of psychology and some of its challenges.  Archives, preserved artifacts or data  Finding aid – tool that leads you to primary sources o If researcher has passed for over a 100 years, access is usually provided o Recent information access becomes more difficult  Challenges: o Difficult to decode writings (translations help) o Availability: Kept? Is it accessible? o Condition of writing  Use of pencil; smudging/fading o Language  Evolving language  Different dialects/slang 3. Know what to look for in a reliable, academic source.  Audience, goal of the source, Author, Publication location, Peer- reviewed? What sources does it reference? Are you able to verify sources? 4. What is the difference between phrenology, physiognomy, mesmerism, spiritualism and mental healing?  Phrenology dedicated different parts of the brain (skull) mapped to represent specific intellectual, emotional and behavioral functions o Proposed by Joseph Gall  Studied certain traits and associated with skull size along with bumps in areas  Physiognomy: studying contours and face lines. Also called characterology o Appearance and character proposed by Lavater  Popular across socio-economic classes  Associated with race (Jewish nose; shrewd?) o Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909)  Criminologist/Anthropologist  Identified “Criminal Type.”  Mesmerism o Franz Anton Mesmer o Magnetism to align fluids  Mental Healing o Quimby developed the “right way of thinking.” o William James was a patient and later showed interest in curing patients from developing positive attitudes (spiritually)  Combination of medicine, psychology and religion 5. Discuss the role of “psychology” for the public.  A way of expressing curiosity in people’s behaviour o Finding the right career, right spouse, getting rid of anxiety and depression Week 3 Objectives 3/4/2013 4:59:00 PM 1. Provide a brief outline of mind localization prior to the nineteenth century.  4000 BC: Southern Mesopotamia study effect of poppy plant o Earliest writings on brain  2500 BC: Egyptians place importance on the heart o Heart remained central focus (Heart stop, life stopped?)  2000 BC: Trephination – practice of cutting and removing portion of skull o People lived long after incisions  Thought to be spiritual healing (let out evil)  460 BC: Hippocrates o recognized brain as origin of intelligence  335 BC: Aristotle places soul in the heart o Brain = air conditioner (cooling system)  Terms such as “hot” headed  Middle ages: Church bans dissection  (1452-1519) Leonardo da Vinci o Didn’t publish his work o Created 1500 detailed sketches of brains  From soldiers  (1514-1564) Andreas Vesalius o Motor abilities; muscle movement o Did publish his works (More detailed and descriptive sketches of neuroanatomy)  Renaissance also included  discovery of cerebrospinal fluid  difference between white/gray matter  naming brain areas  retinal image is inverted  (1596-1650) Rene Descartes o Mind-Brain Dualism  Separated the two but interaction at the pineal gland  Brain; machine-like property  Mind; immaterial, distinctly human characteristic  Both said to influence each other and interacting  In the 1800’s the idea of Cortical Localization developed 2. Describe the localization of function debate and its key players.  Franz Joseph Gall (first imposed idea of phrenology) o Age 9 he observed bulging eyes/forehead and connected it to verbal memory from experience  Noticed anatomical differences and proposed that there should be functional differences as well (cerebellum  sexual behaviour)  At that point, Marie Jean Pierre Florens tested this claim o Made lesions in the cerebellum which showed to have no effect on sexual behaviour but rather other functions  Created larger lesions each time and observed loss of multiple functions  Concluded that behaviour was spread out all over the brain (wrong!) 3. Describe cases of Leborgne and Phineas Gage.  Paul Broca came across the case of Leborgne and countered the claim of Florens o Spoke only the word “tan” o Unable to produce speech o Post-modem examination was performed  Discovered a major lesion in the left (frontal lobe) part of his brain  Associated it with speech production and with more research called it “Broca’s area”  * Wernicke’s area; left parietal lobe for understanding language  Phineas Gage Saga o Accident occurred in 1848 o Railway worker who survived with a rod entering through his left cheek and out the middle of his head  Noticed difference in behaviour  Emphasis to go back to the source; secondary sources exaggerate or distort knowledge 4. Discuss Helmholtz’s role in measuring the speed of nerve conduction and some of his contributions to sensory physiology Bell-Magendie Law  Dorsal portion of spine carries sensory information  Ventral portion of spine carries motor information Johannes Muller: proposed that each nerve could only carry one kind of sensory information regardless how nerve is stimulated  Optic nerve; pressure or bright light = same experience  Claimed that there is no way to measure nerve conduction Helmholtz was a pupil of Muller  His friend Emile mentioned that nerve impulse is an electrochemical wave o Tested this idea with the leg of a frog  90 feet per second  Measurable = 98.7 km/hr  Developed trichromatic theory (RGB) o * Ewald Hering  Opponent Process Theory  3 colour receptors: blue-yellow; red-green; black-white  Trichromatic theory and Opponent Process debated on accuracy o * Christine Ladd-Franklin’s Colour Theory  After Vassar  Worked with Muller and Helmholtz  Theory of colour vision; combined both theories above  Added an evolutionary perspective on colour vision  Compared animal/human vision  Place Theory (aka Resonance theory) o Different regions of basilar membrane tuned to different frequencies o Resonators  Tone-deaf people would be able to pick up on pitch o * Ernest Rutherford  Challenged Place theory; Firing of impulses from basilar membrane matches frequency of incoming sound 5. Explain the Law of Specific Nerve Energies, Weber’s law, and Fechner’s contributions Psychophysics: measuring relationships between physical events and psychological events  Ernst Weber o Two-point threshold  Two points on skin; perceiving those two points  Close together vs. far apart (more detectable)  Sensitive area compared to not so sensitive  Insight on various clusters and structures underneath the skin o Just-noticeable Difference (JND)  The point at which you can reliably differentiate between 2 stimuli o Weber’s Law  Comparing weights; calculating JND  Start with light; slight addition is noticeable  Start with heavy weight; Way more addition of weight is needed to detect a difference  Difference between standard stimulus and weight  Also applicable to sound/volume  Fechner (1801-1889) o Physical not equal to psychological o Separate entities o A pound of feathers and a pound of iron  Physically weigh the same  Psychologically weigh different o Reformulated Weber’s law into a logarithmic version o Accuracy in our perceptions with actuality  Psychological questioned derived from physics Week 4 3/4/2013 4:59:00 PM 1. Discuss the emergence of psychology as an independent discipline and the German influence on this development (particularly the role of Wundt).  Wissenschaft; philosophy of education, incorporates both teaching and research o Allowed students to select their own courses o Created room for topics to be studied scientifically o Lehrfreiheit: freedom to teach o Lernfreiheit; freedom to learn  Wundt graduated from Heidelberg (1855) o Assisted Johannes Müller and Helmholtz (pupil of Muller) o Opened first laboratory in 1879 at University of Leipzig (Germany) 2. Explain Wundt’s psychology and describe what it was like to be a student in his laboratory.  Wundt wedded physiology and philosophy = psychology o He stated that the goal of psychology was to discover, “facts of consciousness, its combinations and relations so that it may ultimately discover the laws which govern these relations  Influenced by Fechner’s work (feathers/lead) o Apprehension: what the observer makes of the content; how the content is interpreted by the experiencing individual  Voluntarism:  Experimental work in the lab  Examination of “immediate” conscious experience  Mediate response in natural sciences  Key concept was, Apperception: an active intentional process that is one involving will  It was important for bringing clarity in thought and focus o Anticipation of an object and then appearance  Volkerpsychologie  Cultural psychology  Study of higher mental processes (religion, art, literature, myth and culture)  Research method; experimental self-observation or introspection o Reporting of results o Also used reaction time method (simple reaction vs. comp
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3,4 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.