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Ch 10 Lec 8.docx

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 325
Mario Liotti

CH 10 Lec 8 - Amnesia o Memory deficits acquired through brain damage o Anterograde  When mild. People may return to work, home, use compensatory devices  When severe, patients need constant care as they may forget where they are or where home is - Patient HM o The study of patient HM initiated the modern study of amnesia o Neurosurgeon William Scoville removed HM’s Hippo as treatment for epilepsy o Severe anterograde amnesia o Everything still intact (including WM), but he could no longer encode new info - Clive Wearing o Musician o Contracted viral encephalitis, damaging MTL and Prefrontal lobes o Severe anterograde AND retrograde o Affects episodic - Case RB o MTL damage, restricted lesion of part of hippo, microscopic lesion of CA1 pyramidal cells in hippo o Dense anterograde amnesia, some retrograde (2years) - HIPPO: learning and memory – anterograde - MTL: learning and memory – anterograde - MAMMILLARY BODIES: learning – anterograde - Amnesic syndrome o Aware of their deficits o Impairment of encoding new info to episodic and semantic while other cog functions intact o Damage to hippo and/or MTL o Implicit Memory  Preserved ability to perform tasks that are influenced by a past event without person being aware of the event experience  Word fragment completion(implicit memory in amnesic syndrome) • Subject is given some letters and must figure out word (eg. S_h_l_r . “scholar”) • Repetition priming is known to make solving them easier o Memory Conversations (conversations about past events/memories). How do amnesiacs do it?  Memory importation • They described a memory from before injury as if it had happened after  Memory appropriation • Using someone else’s retelling of an event as it had happened (using semantic memory instead of episodic)  Memory compensation • Instead of answering question about past, they talk about issues with their syndrome o Method of vanishing cues  Schacter used this method . through many repititions, associated the words run the antivirus program with Norton. Then slowly took letters of Norton away until the word could be thought of through “run the antivirus software”, eventually all cues were taken away and even though she didn’t remember anything, she would know what to do when prompted. o Patient KC  Frontal and temporal lobe damage including left hippo  Normal IQ, severe anterograde AND retrograde  No episodic memories from past (including remote), good short term memory, intact semantic knowledge without source memory  So he could learn new semantic info, but the context (source memory) was lost  Intact implicit memory and perceptual priming. Did well on studies - Benzodiazepines o Valium, etc. (Date rape drugs) cause episodic memory amnesia o Involves Anosognosia  Failure to become aware of a cognitive deficit - Ribot’s law o Newer memories will be more affected by retrograde amnesia than older memories - Consolidation o The process of permanently encoding into LTM – is said to be disrupted in retrograde amnesia - Retrograde o Diencephalon? - ECT: Electroconvulsive therapy o Effective treatment for depression that involves delivering a strong electric shock to the head of a patient- also creates periods of retrograde amnesia - Korsakoff’s disease (diencephalic amnesia) o 2 stages, wernicke’s syndrome (confusional state. Attention and memory deficits, apathy, gaze paralysis, ataxic gate), then korsakoff’s (dementia, amnesia, anosognosia, preserved nondeclarative memory) o Severe form of amnesia brought on by long-term alcoholism  Vitamin B1 deficiency o Diencephalon, basal forebrain, connections to frontal lobes o Diencephalon  Part of the brain containing thalamus and hypo. Serves as relay point in human memory circuit o Characterized by anterograde, retrograde, anosognosia, and confabulation o Confabulation  Honest lying. The patients do not know they are not telling the truth because of deficits in source monitoring. They can be completely made up - Frontal lobe amnesia o Similar to korsakoff’s, but less anterograde o Prefrontal cortex damage o Some anterograde-less severe, anosognosia and confabulation o Source amnesia – source misattribution o Frequent false memories, deficit in temporal ordering - Total Episodic Memory Loss o Case ML  Damage to R ventral PFC and uncinate fasciculus. Severe anterograde and retrograde - Transient global amnesia (TGA) o It disappears after a short time and goes away completely- next day o Dense anterograde amnesia o Some retrograde as well. Could be a few hours to years into the past o Everything else unimpaired o Happens to mid-age p
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