PSYC 325 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Naltrexone, Caudate Nucleus, Electrodermal Activity

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Organisms learn to have particular behaviours to obtain positive or avoid negative outcomes. The stimulus evokes a voluntary response to produce an outcome. In the presence of a particular stimulus (s) a particular response may lead to a particular outcome (o) Rote motor program but if the normal motor program is blocked, other methods can be used to achieve the same goal. Operant conditioning is about contingencies, which change depending on the context. S tells us which contingencies are in effect. Without s the contingencies cannot be followed though. S triggers r which produces o: types of outcomes, compare the meanings of reinforcement vs. punishment. Punishment: something negative, undesirable: compare the meanings of positive vs. negative in relation to reinforcement vs. punishment. Negative: something is removed: explain and give an example of each of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. Pr: if it leads to positive effects, do it more often.