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ch5 definitions


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 355
Professor
Robert Ley

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Chapter 5 ~ Gender
Gender - Characteristics of people as male or females
Gender role - set of expectations that prescribes how females and males should think, act, feel
Social role theory- gender differences mainly result from the contrasting roles of females and males, with females having less power and
status adn controlling fewer resources than males
- differences due to social experience women adapted to roles with less power and status in society and show more
cooperative less dominant profiles than men = social hierarchy adn division of labor important causes
Social cognitive theor y
of gender
- children's and adole gender development occurs through observation and imitiation of gender behaviour, and through
rewards and punishments they experience for gender-appropriate and gender inappropriate behaviour
Schema - cognitive structure, network of associations that guide individual's perceptions
Gender schema theory- individual's attention and behavior are guided by an internal motivation to confor m to gender-based sociocultural
standards and stereotypes
- cognitive theor y
- gender shema – organizes world in terms of gender = children + adole internally motivated to perceive world and act
in accordance with their developing schema
Gender stereotypes Broad categories that ref lect our impressions and beliefs about females and males
Sexism - prejudice and discrimination against an individual because of her or his sex
Old fashioned sexism - endorsement of traditional gender roles, differential treatment for men and women, females less competent than men
Modern sexism - denial that there is still discr imination, antagonism toward women's demands, lack of suppor t for policies designed
to help women
Relational aggression - harming someone by manipulating a relationship
Rapport talk - language of conversation, establishing connections and negotiating relationships
- females enjoy more than boys
Report talk - talk that gives information; ex. Public speaking
Androgyny- presence of high degree of desirable feminine and masculine characteristics in the same individual
- flexible more mentally healthy than either masculine or feminine individuals; undfferentiated is least coompetent
- inceasing children in US being reared this way
- easier to teach to girls than boys
Gender-role
transcendence
- belief that when individual's competence is at issue, it should be conceptualized not on the basis of masculinity,
femininity, or androgyny but, on person basis
Gender intensification
hypothesis
- psychological and behavioural differences between boys and girls become greater during early adole because of
incrased socialization pressure to conform to masculine and feminine gender roles
- family context inf luences how strongly it is
Chapter 6 ~ Sexuality
Sexual script - seterotyped patter n of role prescriptions for how individuals should sexually behave
- socialized to follow different sexual scripts
- females lear n to link intercourse with love= rationalize it by saying swept away by passion= repor t being in love as
reason for sexually active
Sexual minority - someone who identifies with being lesbian, gay, bi
- most experience first same sex attraction, sexual behavior, self labelling during adole.
- most have extended relationship in emerging adulthood
- more males, but more girls have same sx attraction than boys
- first person they disclose to is friend
- gays =12.7 or 12.5 crush on other boy
Critical per iod
hypothesis
- 2-5
th
month of conception, exposure of the fetus to hormone levels characteristic of females might cause the
individual (male or female) to become attracted to males
Bisexual - person who is attracted to ppl of both gender
Homophobia - irrational negative feelings against individuals who have same sex attractions
- common form of self-devaluation = passing
- passing process of hiding one's real social identity
Sexually transmitted
disease (STIs)
- infections that are contracted primarily through sexual contact; not limited to vaginal intercourse but includes oral
genital contact and anal genital cont act too
AIDs - STI caused by HIV which destroys the body's immune system
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