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ch9 definitions

Course Code
PSYC 355
Robert Ley

of 2
Chapter 9: Exploring Peer Relations and Friendship
Peers - individuals who are about the same age
- used to describe an acquaintance, members of a clique, neighborhood associates, friends, and participants in an
activity group
- peer relations = Sullivan; provide contxt for learning the symmetrical reciprocity mode of relationships
Sociometric status - extent to which children and adolescents are liked or disliked by their peer group
- 5 type of peers statuses: popular, average, neglected, rejected, and controversial children
Popular children - children who are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers
- have number of social skills that contribute to being well liked (give out reinforcements, listen carefully, maintain
open lines of communication with peers, happy, control their negative emo, show enthusiasm, concern for others,
confident without being conceited
Average children - children who receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from their peers
Neglected children - children who are infreqently nominated as a best friend but are not dislike by their peers
Rejected children - children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by their peers
- serious adjustment problems than neglected
- best predictor whether they would engage in delinquent behaviour or drop out of school later during adole. Was
agression toward peers in elementry skool
- most of them are agressive, 10-20% are shy
Controversial children - children who are frequently nominated both as a best friend and as being disliked
Social cognition - thoughts about social matters
Conglomerate strategies - use of a combination of techniques, rather than a single approach, to improve adole. Social skills; aka. Coaching
- demonstration, modeling of appropriate social skills, discussion, reasoning about social skills, use of reinforcement
for their enactment in actual social situations
- with neglected children=help them attract attention from their peers in positive ways and hold their attention by
asking questions by listening in warm and friendly way, by syaing things about saying things bout themselves thats
related to peers interest; trained to join peers without trying to change what is taking place in the peer group
Friends - subset of peers who engage in mutual companionship, support, and intimacy
Intimacy in friendship - self-disclosure, or sharing of private thoughts
Cliques - small groups that range from 2 to about 12 individuals and average about 5 to 6 individuals
- members are usually of the same sex and are similar in age; cliques can form because of similar interests, and form
purely friendship
- can form because they have time ith each other and enjoy each others company, not necessarily friends but often
develop friendship if stay in clique
- some form because of friendship; HS = friendship cliques more mixed sex = provide them with access to potential
- share ideas and hang out together, develop ingroup identity which they believe their group better than others
Crowds - larger group structure than cliques and less personal
- adole are usually members of a crowd based on reputation and may or may not spend much time together
- defined by activities adole engage in (ex. Jocks, druggies, populars, normal, nobodies)
Romantic love- love that has strong sexual and infatuation components; aka. Passionate love or eros
- often predominates in the early part of a love relationship
- extremely important in college students
Affectionate love- love occurring when an individual desires to have another person near and has a deep, caring affection for that
person; aka. Companionate love
- strong belief that this characterize adult love than adole love and early stages of love have more romantic ingredients
than later stages
Collaboration - Sullivan; through intimate friendships that adole learn a mature form of love
- collerative orientation with sensitivity to needs of the friend, that forms the basis of satisfying dating and marital
relationships = give rise to new interpersonal issues that youth had not encountered in prior relationships with parents
and friends
Dating scripts - cognitive models that adole and adults use to guide and evaluate dating interactions
- first dates highly scripted along gender lines
- males followed proactive dating script, females a reactive one
- male script = initiating date,control public domain, initiate sexual interaction
- female script = focused on private domain (appearance), participating in date, respond to sexual gestures = gives
males more power in initial stage of relationship
Cohabitation - living together in a sexual relationship without being married
- increased to 75% today before marring
- emerging adults in low income circumstances more likely than higher earning
- tends to be short lived, 1/3 less than a year
- many view not as a precursor to marriage but as an ongoing
- relationship tends to be more equal than married ppl
- neg. = disapproval by family = emo. Strain, difficulty owning property jointly
- increase risk of partner violence against women
Relational aggression - involves spreading disparaging rumors to harm someone
Symmetrical intimate
- increased closeness and importance of friendship challenge adole to master more sophisticated social competencies
(developmental constructivist perspective) = adole friendship represetns a new mode of relating to others
- greater intimacy adole friendships demands requires learning a number of close relationship competencies, such as
self-disclose appropriately, being able to provide emo support, manage disagreements = more sophisticated skills in
perspective taking, empathy, social problem solving