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PSYC 355 Study Guide - No Child Left Behind Act, Eugene Lang, Learning Disability

Course Code
PSYC 355
Robert Ley

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Chapter 10 ~ Schools
Constructivist approach -Learner-centered approach that emphasizes the adolescent’s active, cognitive construction of
knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher
-Children are encouraged to explore their world, discover knowledge, reflect, think critically with
careful monitoring and meaningful guidance form teacher; teacher don’t simply pour info into
children’s minds
-Today, constructivism may include emphasis on collaboration
Direct instruction approach -A teacher-centered (structured) approach characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of
academic skills, high expectations for students and maximum time spent on learning tasks (goal)
-Critique = don’t challenge them to think critically or in creative ways
Collaboration -Children working with each other in their efforts to know and understand
No Child Left Behind Act
-2002; US govt. effort to hold schools and school districts accountable for the success or failure of
their students
-Critique = using single score from single test represent narrow aspect of student’s skill
Top-dog phenomenon -Circumstance of moving from the top position (in elementary school, the oldest, biggest, and most
powerful students) to the lowest position (in middle or junior high school, the youngest, smallest,
and least powerful
Talent Search -Provide low income high school students mentoring, academic tutoring, training on test-taking ,
study skills, career development coaching, college visits, financial aid application help
Bill and Melinda Gates
-Funds, keep at risk students with same teachers through high school years, so teacher can know
student better and have good relationship + guide
-Help them graduate high school
I have a dream (IHAD) -LT dropout prevention 1981; foundation = 1986
-Adopt entire grades especially ¾ = “dreamers” kids provided with program of academic, social,
cultural, recreational activities throughout school years; after HS = provide tuition assistance
-Program = personal; staff develop close LT relationships
-Influenced by Eugene Lang; dramatic improvements in school
Authoritative strategy of
classroom management
-Teaching strategy that encourages students to be independent thinkers and doers but still involves
effective monitoring. Authoritative teachers engage students in considerable verbal give and take
and show a caring attitude toward them. However, they still declare limits when necessary
-Teachers clarify rules and regulations, with input from students (standards)
-From Diana Baumrind’s typology of parenting styles
-Get students who are self reliant and delay gratification get along well with their peers and show
high self esteem
Authoritarian strategy of
classroom management
-Teaching strategy that is restrictive and punitive. The focus is mainly on keeping order in the
classroom rather than on instruction and learning
-Ineffective; teacher place firm limits and controls, little verbal exchange
-Students = passive learners, fail to initiate activities, express anxiety about social comparison, poor
communication skills
Permissive strategy of
classroom management
-Teaching strategy that offers students considerable autonomy but provides them with little support
for developing learning skills or managing their behavior
-Ineffective; students = low self control, inadequate academic skills
Parents and Schools -Role in adolescent’s success in schools: parents positively contribute success through effective
family management practices and involvement in school
-Family Management: positive = related to grades and self-responsibility, negative to school
problems; should maintain structured, organized family environment (routines for hw, chores ,etc);
need expectations for achievement
-Parental involvement: minimal in elementary, less in secondary; better grades if both parents are
involved in their schooling
Peers and Schools -Structure of middle schools: structured in way that encourage students to interact with large
number of peers daily; uncertainty of many classroom and class makes students turn to each other
for support, information and coping strategies
-Peer statuses: popular or accepted by peers is associated with academic success
-Bullying: significant numbers are victims; being belittled about looks or speech = most frequent;
boys and younger middle school students likely to be affected; bullied children = more loneliness,
difficulty making friends, bullies = likely to have low grades, smoke and drink alcohol; anxious,
socially withdraw (don’t retaliate) and aggressive (behavior irritating) children likely to be victims
Cyber bullying -When a child or adolescent is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated by another child or
adolescent on the internet
-Increasing concern
Jigsaw classroom -(Aronson) Classroom strategy in which students from different cultural backgrounds are placed in
a cooperative group in which, together, they have to construct different parts of a project to reach a
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