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ch 12 definitions

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PSYC 355
Robert Ley

Chapter 12 ~ Culture Culture - Behavior, patterns, beliefs and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation - Understand behavior of the world = interact better and effectively - Relates to self-conceptions Ethnocentrism - Tendency to favor one’s own group over other groups Cross-cultural studies - Studies that compare a culture with one or more other cultures - Provide information about the degree to which development in adolescents and emerging adults is similar, or universal, across cultures, or about the degree to which it is culture-specific - Found beginning of seventh grade to end of eight, US adolescents valued academic less, and motivational behavior also decreased, but Chinese adolescents did not change - Basic traits focused on individualism and collectivism Individualism - Emphasizes values that serve the self and gives priority to personal goals, not group goals - Focus on individual, self determined by person traits independent of groups; self is stable across context, private self is more important, personal achievement, competition, power, cognitive dissonance frequent, emotions are self focused, people who are the most liked are self-assured, values: pleasure, achievement, competition, freedom, many casual relationships, save own face, independent behaviors: swimming, etc. , relative rare mother-child physical contact - Culture = higher rates of crime, suicide, teenage pregnancy, divorce, child abuse, mental disorders Collectivism - Emphasizes values that serve the group by subordination personal goals to preserve group integrity - Focus on groups, self defined by in-group terms; self can change with context, public self important, achievement for benefit of in-group; cooperation stressed, cognitive dissonance infrequent, emotions are often relationship based, most liked people are modest, self-effacing, values: security, obedience, in-group harmony, personalized relationships, few close relationships, save own another’s face, interdependent behaviors, frequent mother-child physical contact (hug) Rites of passage - Ceremonies or rituals that mark an individual’s transition from one status to another, such as the entry into adulthood - Primitive cultures = avenue through which adolescents gain access to sacred adult practices, responsibilities, knowledge, sexuality = often dramatic ceremonies intended to facilitate adolescent’s separation from immediate family especially boys from the mother - Usually some form of ritual death and rebirth; contact with spiritual world; bonds form between adolescent and adult instructors through shared rituals, hazards, secrets to allow entry to adult world = forceful and discontinuous - Usually Africa, sub-Saharan Africa (adolescents passage) - Western = many disappearing - School graduation = US + closest to being culture-wide (high school graduation), but not result in universal changes (many still live with parents, economically dependent, undecided about career and lifestyle) - Sexual intercourse = increasing in American adolescents; end of adolescence more than 70% had intercourse Socioeconomic status (SES) - Grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics - Different levels of power, influence, prestige; inequality - Members of a society have (1) occupations that vary in prestige, some have more access to higher status occupations (2) different levels of educational attainment, some have more access to better education (3) different economic resources (4) different levels of power to influence community’s institutions - Low SES background = can influence adolescent’s adjustment and achievement; at risk for experiencing low achievement and emotional problems, lower occupational attainment, social maladaptation, psychological problems (low confidence + depression), peer conflict, delinquency, - Western cultures = differences in child rearing; less resource • Low = parents concerned that children (1) conform to society ‘s expectations (2) crate home atmosphere that is clear that parents have authority over children (3) use physical punishment to discipline (4) directive, less conversational • Higher = (1) developing child initiative and delay of gratification (2) create home atmosphere where near equal participants and rules are discussed in authoritarian manner (3) not much physical punishment (4) less directive more conversational Poverty - Economic hardship, common marker is federal poverty threshold - Poverty threshold – originally based on estimated cost of food (basic diet) x 3, but adjusted annually for family size and inflation - Canada = child poverty is 9% - US= demarcated along family structure and ethnic lines; 2006-42% female-headed families in poverty; 8% married couples - 33% African American, 27% Latino, 10% non Latino white - Persistent=usually ethnic minority - Psychological effects on adolescents and emerging adults = (1) often powerless; occupations = rarely decision makers; rules handed in authoritarian manner (2) vulnerable to disaster (no notice when laid off + no financial resource) (3) range of alternatives is restricted (jobs) (4) less prestige - Environmental inequalities of poor children and adolescents = experience more conflict, violence, instability, chaos in home, les social support, parents less responsive, more authoritarian, watch more TV + less access to books , school and child care facilities = inferior, parents monitor school activities less, air and water polluted, homes crowded and noisy, dangerous and physically
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