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ch 13 definitions

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PSYC 355
Robert Ley

Chapter 13 ~ Problems in Adolescence and emerging Adulthood Biopyschosocial approach - Approach that emphasizes that problems develop through an interaction of biological, psychological and social factors - Biological approach adolescent and emerging adult problems caused by malfunctioning of body Focus on genes, puberty, hormones, and brain as causes Early maturation linked to lots of problem such as drug abuse, delinquency Hormonal changes associated with puberty = factor in higher rate of depression in adolescent girls How handle emerging sexual interest and early sexual intercourse linked to problems Later development of prefrontal cortex, earlier maturation of amygdale contribute to increased incidence of risk taking and sensation seeking therefore adolescent not mature enough in thinking to control behavior in risky situations - Psychological factors identity, personality traits, decision making, self-control Need positive identity for health adjustment search for coherent identity leads to experimentation with different identities, which may involve problems Emotional swings when intensely negative (ex. Sadness = depression develop) Big Five = low conscientiousness likely to have substance abuse, conduct problems Increased decision making so emotions overwhelm decision making ability Not adequately develop self-control likely to develop substance abuse and engage in delinquent acts - Social factors social context of family, peers, schools, SES, poverty, neighborhood High level of parent-adolescent conflict, inadequate monitoring of adolescents, insecure attachment Adolescents who dont become adequately connected to world of peers Rejected adolescents prone; hanging out with problem peers; some aspects of romantic relationships (ex. Early dating) Middle school = too impersonal and dont meet needs; secondary schools = dont have adequate counseling services; adolescents thats not actively engage in school Poverty = vulnerable, especially delinquency; boys from affluent family vulnerable to substance abuse; quality of neighborhood (ex. High crime rates) Developmental - Approach that focuses on describing and exploring the developmental pathways of problems psychopathology approach - Seek to establish links between early precursors of problem (early experience, risk factors) and outcomes - Describes continuity and transformations in factors that influence outcomes - Usually longitudinal studies, seek to identify risk factors that might predispose the to develop problems and protective factors to help shield them from developing problems Internalizing problems - Develop when individuals turn problems inward. Ex. Anxiety, depression - Anxiety problems in adolescence liked with insecure resistant attachment in infancy Externalizing problems - Develop when individuals turn problems outward. Ex. Juvenile delinquency - Conduct problems in adolescence related to avoidant attachment - Low SES background destroy belonging, fighting, uncontrolled problems (mostly boys) - More if parents are separated, divorced, unmarried, receiving public assistance Risk factors - Predictors of problems; indicates elevated probability of a problem outcome in groups of people who have that factor - Poverty, ineffective parenting, mental disorders in parents predict adolescents problems Stress - Response of individuals to stressors, which are circumstances and events that threaten and tax their coping abilities - Acute stressors sudden events or stimuli - Chronic stressors long-lasting - Decrease in late adolescence and active and internal coping strategies increased as they got older - Life events, daily hassles, sociocultural factors - Major life changes (death of someone close) = higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, earlier death - Several stressors simultaneously experienced, effects may be compounded =4x more likely to need psychological services than those who experience one chronic stressor - Adolescents have positive relationship with parents dont show increase in externalizing problems after experiencing stressful life events - Adolescents with better emotion-regulation skills who experienced negative life events less likely to develop anxiety and depression than counterparts - Sociocultural factors = determine what stressors people would encounter; females less likely to respond to stressful and threatening situations with a flight or fight response than males= female www.notesolution.comtend-and-befriend (respond by protecting themselves and others through nurturing behavior and form alliances with larger social group) - School stress = no gender differences; girls more stress in peer relations and use more active strategies to cope - POVERTY! - Think positive = GOOD coping almost all circumstances > improves ability to process information efficiently and enhance self esteem, sense of control of environment - SUPPORT = coping = positive attachment to family, peers, etc. = buffer to stress because supporters can recommend specific actions, plans Daily hassle approach - Daily hassles and daily uplifts can provide information about effects of stressors, they dont show up on scales of major events but everyday tension creates highly stressful life that can lead to psychological disorder or illness - Daily hassle for college students = wasting time, lonely, worrying about meeting high achievement, fear failing = depression - Daily uplifts for college = having fun, laughing, going to movies, getting along with friends - Critique = dont tell anything about perceptions of stressors, coping Acculturative stress - Negative consequences that result from contact between two distinctive cultural groups - Mostly immigrants Coping - Managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve lifes problems, and seeking to master or reduce stress - Success = linked to sense of personal control, positive emotions, personal resources, but depends on strategies used and context - Strategies = think positively and optimistically, increase self-control, seek social support, seek counselor/therapist, use multiple coping strategies Problem-focused coping - Richard Lazarus term for the strategy of squarely facing ones troubles and trying to solve them - Associated with positi
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