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PSYC 355 Study Guide - Juvenile Delinquency, Major Depressive Disorder, Sensation Seeking

Course Code
PSYC 355
Robert Ley

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Chapter 13 ~ Problems in Adolescence and emerging Adulthood
Biopyschosocial approach -Approach that emphasizes that problems develop through an interaction of biological,
psychological and social factors
-Biological approach adolescent and emerging adult problems caused by malfunctioning of
Focus on genes, puberty, hormones, and brain as causes
Early maturation linked to lots of problem such as drug abuse, delinquency
Hormonal changes associated with puberty = factor in higher rate of depression in
adolescent girls
How handle emerging sexual interest and early sexual intercourse linked to problems
Later development of prefrontal cortex, earlier maturation of amygdale contribute to
increased incidence of risk taking and sensation seeking therefore adolescent not mature
enough in thinking to control behavior in risky situations
-Psychological factors identity, personality traits, decision making, self-control
Need positive identity for health adjustment search for coherent identity leads to
experimentation with different identities, which may involve problems
Emotional swings when intensely negative (ex. Sadness = depression develop)
Big Five = low conscientiousness likely to have substance abuse, conduct problems
Increased decision making so emotions overwhelm decision making ability
Not adequately develop self-control likely to develop substance abuse and engage in
delinquent acts
-Social factorssocial context of family, peers, schools, SES, poverty, neighborhood
High level of parent-adolescent conflict, inadequate monitoring of adolescents, insecure
Adolescents who don’t become adequately connected to world of peers
Rejected adolescents prone; hanging out with problem peers; some aspects of romantic
relationships (ex. Early dating)
Middle school = too impersonal and don’t meet needs; secondary schools = don’t have
adequate counseling services; adolescents that’s not actively engage in school
Poverty = vulnerable, especially delinquency; boys from affluent family vulnerable to
substance abuse; quality of neighborhood (ex. High crime rates)
psychopathology approach
-Approach that focuses on describing and exploring the developmental pathways of problems
-Seek to establish links between early precursors of problem (early experience, risk factors) and
-Describes continuity and transformations in factors that influence outcomes
-Usually longitudinal studies, seek to identify risk factors that might predispose the to develop
problems and protective factors to help shield them from developing problems
Internalizing problems -Develop when individuals turn problems inward. Ex. Anxiety, depression
-Anxiety problems in adolescence liked with insecure resistant attachment in infancy
Externalizing problems -Develop when individuals turn problems outward. Ex. Juvenile delinquency
-Conduct problems in adolescence related to avoidant attachment
-Low SES background destroy belonging, fighting, uncontrolled problems (mostly boys)
-More if parents are separated, divorced, unmarried, receiving public assistance
Risk factors - Predictors of problems; indicates elevated probability of a problem outcome in groups of people
who have that factor
-Poverty, ineffective parenting, mental disorders in parents predict adolescents problems
Stress -Response of individuals to stressors, which are circumstances and events that threaten and tax their
coping abilities
-Acute stressorssudden events or stimuli
-Chronic stressorslong-lasting
-Decrease in late adolescence and active and internal coping strategies increased as they got older
-Life events, daily hassles, sociocultural factors
-Major life changes (death of someone close) = higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, earlier
-Several stressors simultaneously experienced, effects may be compounded =4x more likely to need
psychological services than those who experience one chronic stressor
-Adolescents have positive relationship with parents don’t show increase in externalizing problems
after experiencing stressful life events
-Adolescents with better emotion-regulation skills who experienced negative life events less likely
to develop anxiety and depression than counterparts
-Sociocultural factors = determine what stressors people would encounter; females less likely to
respond to stressful and threatening situations with a flight or fight response than males= female

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tend-and-befriend (respond by protecting themselves and others through nurturing behavior and
form alliances with larger social group)
-School stress = no gender differences; girls more stress in peer relations and use more active
strategies to cope
-Think positive = GOOD coping almost all circumstances > improves ability to process information
efficiently and enhance self esteem, sense of control of environment
-SUPPORT = coping = positive attachment to family, peers, etc. = buffer to stress because
supporters can recommend specific actions, plans
Daily hassle approach -Daily hassles and daily uplifts can provide information about effects of stressors, they don’t show
up on scales of major events but everyday tension creates highly stressful life that can lead to
psychological disorder or illness
-Daily hassle for college students = wasting time, lonely, worrying about meeting high
achievement, fear failing = depression
-Daily uplifts for college = having fun, laughing, going to movies, getting along with friends
-Critique = don’t tell anything about perceptions of stressors, coping
Acculturative stress -Negative consequences that result from contact between two distinctive cultural groups
-Mostly immigrants
Coping -Managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life’s problems, and seeking to master
or reduce stress
-Success = linked to sense of personal control, positive emotions, personal resources, but depends
on strategies used and context
-Strategies = think positively and optimistically, increase self-control, seek social support, seek
counselor/therapist, use multiple coping strategies
Problem-focused coping -Richard Lazarus’ term for the strategy of squarely facing one’s troubles and trying to solve them
-Associated with positive change following trauma and adversity
-Good for long term usually
Emotion-focused coping -Richard Lazarus’ term for responding to stress in an emotional manner, especially by using
defense mechanisms
-Avoiding problem, rationalizing what has happened, denying it is occurring, laughing it off, asking
god to help
-Not good; linked to increased risk for developing problems
-Depressed avoid problems more
-Sometimes adaptive > denial of death by postponing it but most of the time maladaptive
Coping flexibility -Ability to modify coping strategies to match the demands of the situation
Alcohol -depressant on body and slows down brain’s activities; depends on body weight, amount ingested,
-sufficient quantities = damage or kill biological tissues, muscle and brain cells
-reduced inhibition and impaired judgment; skilled performance become impaired
-initially adolescents feel more talkative, confident, more digested = intellectual functioning,
behavioral control, judgment less efficient then drowsy and fall asleep
-extreme intoxication = coma
-most widely used drug by adolescent and emerging adults; 3rd leading killer in US
-majority aggressive males acts against females
-sizeable declines in adolescent
-males engage in more binge drinking than females
-transition from high school to college critical transition in alcohol abuse = older youth recognize
drinking common for people their age, largely acceptable, expected, social and coping benefits
-binge drink = half problems missing class, physical injuries, trouble with police, unprotected sex,
more likely to drunk drive, fail
-binge-drinking rates (men 5 drinks in row; women =4) consistent over 8 years; mostly students
living in fraternities; lowest for those live with parents
-increase in binge drinking by females during emerging adulthood
-risk factors: heredity, family influences, peer relations, personality, motivation characteristics
-adolescent’s and emerging adults use if related to parent and peer relations; adolescent unhappy
home, parents little nurturance, insecure attachment, poor family management and monitor,
parents are alcoholics, peer group drink
-raising minimum drinking age did lower frequency of car crash of adolescent but didn’t decrease
alcohol abuse
Hallucinogens -Drugs that alter an individual’ perceptual experience and produce hallucinations; aka. Psychedelic
(mind-altering) drugs
LSD -Lysergic acid diethylamide; hallucinogen that even in low doses produces perceptual changes;
objects glow and change shape; colors = kaleidoscopic; images can be pleasurable or
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